Determinants of Student Satisfaction on Continuing Education Intention: A Case Study of Private University in Cambodia

Main Article Content

Thavuth Hok
Jirapun Daengdej
Rawin Vongurai


The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of determinants of student satisfaction on continuing education intention for a master’s degree at a leading private university, locating in Kampong Cham province, Cambodia. The study was conducted quantitatively and applied the multi-stage sampling technique by employing purposive sampling, simple random sampling, and quota sampling method. A sample size of 600 students from year 1 semester II to year 4 who are studying in various majors in this private university were involved. This study adapted the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and the Structural Equation Model (SEM) to identify the relationship and the impact of determinants of student satisfaction on student’s continuing education intention for a master’s degree at a private university. The results revealed that among six determinants of student satisfaction, 4 determinants namely curriculum quality, service facility, teaching quality, and campus life & social integration have significant impact student satisfaction. Moreover, student satisfaction had significantly affected intention for continuing education. Additionally, the most significant determinant of student satisfaction is campus life & social integration, followed by teaching quality, curriculum quality, and service facility, while college administration and financial assistance & tuition costs have no significant impact on student satisfaction.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Hok, T., Daengdej, J. ., & Vongurai, R. . (2021). Determinants of Student Satisfaction on Continuing Education Intention: A Case Study of Private University in Cambodia. AU-GSB E-JOURNAL, 14(2), 40-50.


Abdullah, F. (2005). HEdPERF versus SERVPERF: The quest for ideal measuring instrument of service quality in higher education sector. Quality assurance in education, 13(4), 305-328.

Abdullah, F. (2006). Measuring service quality in higher education: HEdPERF versus SERVPERF. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 24(1), 31-47.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 50(2), 179-211.

Ajzen, I. F., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Prentice-hall Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 278.

Aldridge, S., & Rowley, J. (1998). Measuring customer satisfaction in higher education. Quality assurance in education, 6(4), 197-204.

Ali, F., Zhou, Y., Hussain, K., Nair Pradeep, K., & Ragavan Neethiahnanthan, A. (2016). Does higher education service quality effect student satisfaction, image and loyalty? A study of international students in Malaysian public universities. Quality assurance in education, 24(1), 70-94.

Anderson, L. W., & Burns, R. B. (1991). Research in Classrooms: The Study of Teachers. Teaching and Instruction. British Journal of Educational Studies, 39(1), 84-85.

Annamdevula, S., & Bellamkonda Raja, S. (2016). Effect of student perceived service quality on student satisfaction, loyalty and motivation in Indian universities: Development of HiEduQual. Journal of Modelling in Management, 11(2), 488-517.

Ary, D., Jacobs, L., Sorensen, C., & Walker, D. (2010). Introduction to research in education. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Bacon, L. (1997). SPSS White Paper: Using Amos for Structural Equation Modeling in Marketing Research. Marketing Department, SPSS Inc.

Barnsbee, L., Barnett, A. G., Halton, K., & Nghiem, S. (2018). Chapter 24 - Cost-effectiveness. In S. D. Gregory, M. C. Stevens, & J. F. Fraser (Eds.), Mechanical Circulatory and Respiratory Support (pp. 749-772). Academic Press.

Bhattacherjee, A. (2001). Understanding information systems continuance: an expectation-confirmation model. MIS quarterly, 351-370.

Browne, B. A., Kaldenberg, D. O., Browne, W. G., & Brown, D. J. (1998). Student as Customer: Factors Affecting Satisfaction and Assessments of Institutional Quality. Journal of marketing for higher education, 8(3), 1-14.

Burkhalter, B. B. (1996). How can institutions of higher education achieve quality within the new economy? Total Quality Management, 7(2), 153-160.

Byrne, B. M. (2001). Structural Equation Modeling With AMOS, EQS, and LISREL: Comparative Approaches to Testing for the Factorial Validity of a Measuring Instrument. International journal of testing, 1(1), 55-86.

Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming, 2nd ed. Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Chealy, C. (2009). Higher education in Cambodia. In The political economy of educational reforms and capacity development in Southeast Asia (pp. 153-165). Springer.

Chiu, C.-M., & Wang, E. T. G. (2008). Understanding Web-based learning continuance intention: The role of subjective task value. Information & Management, 45(3), 194-201.

Comrey, A. L., & Lee, H. B. (1992). Interpretation and Application of Factor Analytic Results. In A First Course in Factor Analysis (2nd ed.). Psychology Press.

Cooper, D. L., Healy, M. A., & Simpson, J. (1994). Student development through involvement: Specific changes over time. Journal of College Student Development, 35(2), 98-102.

Cowles, D., & Gilbreath, G. (1993). Total quality management at Virginia Commonwealth University: an urban university struggles with the realities of TQM. Higher Education, 25(3), 281-302.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Teacher quality and student achievement. Education policy analysis archives, 8, 1.

Doherty, G. D. (1993). Towards total quality management in higher education: a case study of the University of Wolverhampton. Higher Education, 25(3), 321-339.

Elliott, K. M., & Healy, M. A. (2001). Key factors influencing student satisfaction related to recruitment and retention. Journal of marketing for higher education, 10(4), 1-11.

Farahmandian, S., Minavand, H., & Afshardost, M. (2013). Perceived service quality and student satisfaction in higher education. Journal of Business and Management, 12(4), 65-74.

Figueredo, F. R., & Tsarenko, Y. (2013). Is “being green” a determinant of participation in university sustainability initiatives? International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 14(3), 242-253.

Fornell, C. (1992). A National Customer Satisfaction Barometer: The Swedish Experience. Journal of marketing, 56(1), 6-21.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of marketing research, 18(1), 39-50.

Galloway, L. (1998). Quality perceptions of internal and external customers: a case study in educational administration. The TQM magazine, 10(1), 20-26.

Gamage, D. T., Suwanabroma, J., Ueyama, T., Hada, S., & Sekikawa, E. (2008). The impact of quality assurance measures on student services at the Japanese and Thai private universities. Quality assurance in education, 16(2), 181-198.

Gorard, S., & Smith, E. (2007). Do barriers get in the way? A review of the determinants of post‐16 participation. Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 12(2), 141-158.

Hair, J., Anderson, R., Tatham, R., & Black, W. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ:Prentice Hall, pp. 137-142.

Hanushek, E. A. (2016). Will more higher education improve economic growth? Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 32(4), 538-552.

Hardi, M., Arief, H., Nelvitia, P., & Rudy, P. (2020). Effect of Service Quality Toward Student Satisfaction and Loyalty in Higher Education. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 7(10), 929-938.

Hill, Y., Lomas, L., & MacGregor, J. (2003). Students’ perceptions of quality in higher education. Quality assurance in education, 11(1), 15-20.

Hossain Mohammad, A., Hossain Md, M., & Chowdhury Tajmin, H. (2018). Understanding the success of private universities: An empirical investigation from graduates’ perspective. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 35(1), 145-162.

Hu, L. t., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural equation modeling: a multidisciplinary journal, 6(1), 1-55.

Jankowicz, A. D. (1995). Negotiating shared meanings of the management process: A discourse in two voices. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 8(2), 117-128.

KaewNate, P. (2011). The Initial Impact of ODIs on Lecturer Commitment to Thailand Qualification Framework, Quality Assurance, and Quality of Teaching: A Case Study of Suan Dusit Rajaphat University. AU-GSB e-JOURNAL, 4(2).

Kaur, H., & Bhalla, G. S. (2018). Determinants of effectiveness in public higher education-students’ viewpoint. International Journal of Educational Management, 32(6), 1135-1155.

Kitamura, Y. (2016). Higher Education in Cambodia: Challenges to Promote Greater Access and Higher Quality. In The Palgrave Handbook of Asia Pacific Higher Education (pp. 365-380). Springer.

Kleickmann, T., Richter, D., Kunter, M., Elsner, J., Besser, M., Krauss, S., & Baumert, J. (2013). Teachers’ Content Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge:The Role of Structural Differences in Teacher Education. Journal of teacher education, 64(1), 90-106.

Knight, P. (2002). Being a teacher in higher education. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

Knight, P. T., & Yorke, M. (2002). Employability Through the Curriculum. Tertiary education and management, 8(4), 261-276.

Kunanusorn, A., & Puttawong, D. (2015). The Mediating effect of satisfaction on student loyalty to higher education institution. European Scientific Journal.

Lei, S., Bartlett, K. A., Gorney, S., & Herschbach, T. R. (2010). Resistance to Reading Compliance among College Students: Instructors' Perspectives. College Student Journal, 44, 219-229.

Lewis, R. G., & Smith, D. H. (1994). Total Quality in Higher Education. ERIC.

Liu, R., & Liu, R. (2004). Satisfaction and performance: a reciprocal model. the Annual Forum of the Association for Institutional Research(Boston, MA).

Maharsi, A. R., Njotoprajitno, R. S., Hadianto, B., & Wiraatmaja, J. (2021). The Effect of Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction on Purchasing Intention: A Case Study in Indonesia. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 8(4), 475-482.

Mai, L.-W. (2005). A Comparative Study Between UK and US: The Student Satisfaction in Higher Education and its Influential Factors. Journal of marketing management, 21(7-8), 859-878.

Malik, M. E., Danish, R. Q., & Usman, A. (2010). The impact of service quality on students’ satisfaction in higher education institutes of Punjab. Journal of Management Research, 2(2), 1-11.

Martirosyan, N. (2015). An examination of factors contributing to student satisfaction in Armenian higher education. International Journal of Educational Management, 29(2), 177-191.

Mavondo, F. T., Tsarenko, Y., & Gabbott, M. (2004). International and Local Student Satisfaction: Resources and Capabilities Perspective. Journal of marketing for higher education, 14(1), 41-60.

Moore, A. (2006). Schooling, society and curriculum. Routledge.

Napitupulu, D., Rahim, R., Abdullah, D., Setiawan, M. I., Abdillah, L. A., Ahmar, A. S., Simarmata, J., Hidayat, R., Nurdiyanto, H., & Pranolo, A. (2018). Analysis of Student Satisfaction Toward Quality of Service Facility. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 954, 012019.

Navarro, M. M., Iglesias, M. P., & Torres, P. R. (2005). A new management element for universities: satisfaction with the offered courses. International Journal of Educational Management.

Nguyen, Q. L. H. T. T., Van, N. D., Mong, C. H. U. N. N., & Hong, T. V. (2020). Application of Total Quality Management in Developing Quality Assessment Model: The Case of Vietnamese Higher Education. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 7(11), 1049-1057.

Nsiah-Gyabaah, K. (2015). The missing ingredients in technical and vocational education in meeting the needs of society and promoting socio-economic development in Ghana.

O'Brien, P. N. (2004). Challenges to higher education in Cambodia: Access, equity of access and quality and relevance. Unpublished.

Oliver, R. L. (1980). A cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction decisions. Journal of marketing research, 17(4), 460-469.

Oliver, R. L. (1999). Whence Consumer Loyalty? Journal of marketing, 63(4_suppl1), 33-44.

Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Leech, N. L. (2007). A Call for Qualitative Power Analyses. Quality & Quantity, 41(1), 105-121.

Pupat, N. (2010). The Impact of Organizational Development Intervention on Service Process for Curriculum Development at Assumption University, Thailand: A Case Study. AU-GSB e-JOURNAL, 3(2).

Sallis, E. (2002). Total quality management in education (3rd ed.). Routledge.

Schertzer, C. B., & Schertzer, S. M. B. (2004). Student Satisfaction and Retention: A Conceptual Model. Journal of marketing for higher education, 14(1), 79-91.

Segars, A. H., & Grover, V. (1993). Re-Examining Perceived Ease of Use and Usefulness: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis. MIS quarterly, 17(4), 517-525.

Sharma, A., Van Hoof, B., & Pursel, B. (2013). An assessment of reading compliance decisions among undergraduate students. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 13(4), 103-125.

Sharma, G. (2017). Pros and cons of different sampling techniques. International journal of applied research, 3(7), 749-752.

Sohail, M. S., & Shaikh, N. M. (2004). Quest for excellence in business education: a study of student impressions of service quality. International Journal of Educational Management.

Soper, D. S. (2015). A-priori sample size calculator for structural equation models [Software]. Available from

Sothy, K., Madhur, S., & Chhem, R. (2015). Cambodia Education 2015: employment and empowerment. Cambodia Development Resource Institute.

Ten Eyck, R. P., Tews, M., & Ballester, J. M. (2009). Improved Medical Student Satisfaction and Test Performance With a Simulation-Based Emergency Medicine Curriculum: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Annals of emergency medicine, 54(5), 684-691.

Tilak, J. B. (2003). Higher education and development. In International Handbook of Educational Research in the Asia-Pacific Region (pp. 809-826). Springer.

Tithsatya, D. (2017). Higher Education in Cambodia: Current Situation, Problems and Solutions. GLOBAL JOURNAL FOR RESEARCH ANALYSIS, VI(VI).

Ullman, J. B. (2001). Structural equation modeling. In B. G. Tabachnick, & L. S. Fidell (Eds.), Using multivariate statistics (pp. 653-771). Pearson Education.

Vicheth, S., & Soveacha, R. (2013). Anatomy of higher education governance in Cambodia. CDRI Working Paper Series, No. 86.

Walker, K. (2012). Cambodia’s Postgraduate Students: Emerging Patterns and Trends. Asean Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (AJTLHE), 4(1), 1-13.

Webb, M. S., Coccari, R. L., & Allen, L. C. (1997). Doctoral Programs: What Factors Attract Students. Journal of marketing for higher education, 7(4), 73-85.

Williams, J. H., Kitamura, Y., & Keng, C. S. (2014). Higher Education in Cambodia: Expansion and Quality Improvement. Higher Education Forum, 11, 67-89.

Witowski, L. L. (2008). The relationship between instructional delivery methods and student learning preferences: What contributes to student satisfaction in an online learning environment? [Capella University].

Xiao, J., & Wilkins, S. (2015). The effects of lecturer commitment on student perceptions of teaching quality and student satisfaction in Chinese higher education. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 37(1), 98-110.

Most read articles by the same author(s)