A Model For Developing Leadership Skills For Music Students At Public Universities In Zhuzhou, China


  • Sha Liu Hunan University of Technology
  • Nathara Mhunpiew
  • Monthol Prathumarach


DOI: 10.14456/abacodijournal.2023.47
Published: 2023-10-24


More and more higher education institutions are emphasizing developing student leadership skills. This study aimed to create a model to improve the leadership skills of music students at public universities in Zhuzhou, China. This study utilized a mixed-method research design. The qualitative aspect used a systematic approach to find variables to develop the questionnaire from secondary literature and interview data-the quantitative element involves the use of numerical analysis of findings from the questionnaires. The total sample size for the study was 546 music students. The research instruments were questionnaires and model validation forms. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. According to the results of the study, 1) the leadership skills needed for music students in universities were communication, delegation, flexibility, positivity, motivation, commitment, trustworthiness, and responsibility. 2) Two leadership skills, delegation and responsibility, needed to be prioritized in developing music students at Zhuzhou Public Universities in China. 3) The researcher finally proposed a model based on these two leadership skills and related research theories evaluated and revised by experts. 4) The final conceptual model was designed as a triangle focusing on three primary levels: personal, university, and social. Finally, the experts approved the model for developing leadership skills for music students at Zhuzhou Public Universities in China and can be generalized to Zhuzhou Public Universities in China.


Barker, R. A. (1997). How can we train leaders if we do not know what Leadership is?. Human Relations, 50(4), 343-362.

Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. Harper & Row.

Chi, X., Liu, J., & Bai, Y. (2017). College environment, student involvement, and intellectual development: evidence in China. Higher Education (00181560), 74(1), 81-99.

Clarke, H. (2021). How pre-registration nursing students acquire delegation skills: A systematic literature review. Nurse Education Today, 106, 105096.

Correia-Harker, B. P., & Dugan, J. P. (2020). Beyond knowledge and skills: Exploring leadership motivation as a critical construct for student leadership development. Journal of College Student Development, 61(3), 299-316.

D'Amario, S., Daffern, H., & Bailes, F. (2018). Synchronization in singing duo performances: The roles of visual contact and leadership instruction. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1208.

Daniëls, E., Hondeghem, A., & Dochy, F. (2019). A review on Leadership and leadership development in educational settings. Educational research review, 27, 110-125.

Evans, N. J., Forney, D. S., Guido, F. M., Patton, L. D., & Renn, K. A. (2010). Student development in college: Theory, research, and practice (2nd ed.). Jossey-Bass A Wiley Imprint.

Fragouli, E. (2017). Reviewing the role of Higher Education towards the development of leadership competencies. International Journal of Higher Education Management, 4(1), 26-49.

Fries, A., Kammerlander, N., & Leitterstorf, M. (2021). Leadership styles and leadership behaviors in family firms: A systematic literature review. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 12(1), 100374.

Ginsborg, J. (2017). Small ensembles in rehearsal. In J. Rink, H. Gaunt, & A. Williamon (Eds.), Artians in the Making: Pathways to Creative Performance (pp. 164-184). Oxford University Press.

Jacobs, R. L. (2017). Knowledge work and human resource development. Human Resource Development Review, 16(2), 176-202.

Karagianni, D., & Montgomery, J. A. (2018). Developing leadership skills among adolescents and young adults: a review of leadership programs. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 23(1), 86-98.

Karkouti, I. M. (2014). Examining psychosocial identity development theories: A guideline for professional practice. Education, 135(2), 257-263.

Komives, S. R., & Wagner, W. (2009). Leadership for a better world: Understanding the social change model of leadership development. Jossey-Bass.

Leavy, P. (Ed.). (2017). Handbook of arts-based research. Guilford Publications.

Li, W. H. (2019). Research on Leadership and Its Influencing Factors of College Students [Master's Degree Thesis]. Tianjin University

Lorensius, L., Warman, W., Silpanus, S., & Ping, T. (2021). Leadership model and planning strategies in private Catholic colleges during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Educational Studies in Social Sciences, 1(2), 49-60.

Luo, J. (2021). Research on the Cultivation of Leadership among Chinese College Students in the New Era [Master's Thesis]. Nanjing Normal University

Mango, E. (2018). Rethinking leadership theories. Open Journal of Leadership, 7(1), 57-68.

Prinsley, R. T., & Baranyai, K. (2013). STEM skills in the workforce: what do employers want?. Office of the Chief Scientist.

Qian, H., Walker, A., & Li, X. (2017). The West Wind vs. the East Wind: Instructional Leadership Model in China. Journal of Educational Administration, 55(2), 186-206.

Sessa, V. I., Bragger, J. D., Alonso, N., Knudsen, Q. E., & Toich, M. J. (2018). Leader possible selves: A new motivational construct to Consider in college student leader development?. Journal of Leadership, Accountability, and Ethics, 15(2), 22-41.

Sousa, M. J., & Rocha, Á. (2019). Leadership styles and skills developed through game-based learning. Journal of Business Research, 94, 360-366.

Sutherland, A., & Cartwright, P. A. (2022). Working together: Implications of leadership style for the music ensemble. International Journal of Music Education, 40(4), 613-627.

Uslu, O. (2019). A general overview of leadership theories from a critical perspective. Marketing and Innovation Management, 1, 161-172.

Villarreal, S., Montoya, J. A., Duncan, P., & Gergen, E. (2018). Leadership styles predict career readiness in early college high‐school students. Psychology in the Schools, 55(5), 476-489.

Winther, H. (2018). Dancing Days with Young People: A music-based coproduced research film on embodied leadership, creativity, and innovative education. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 17(1), 1609406918789330.




How to Cite

Liu, S., Mhunpiew, N., & Prathumarach, M. . (2023). A Model For Developing Leadership Skills For Music Students At Public Universities In Zhuzhou, China. ABAC ODI JOURNAL Vision. Action. Outcome, 11(1), 345-360. https://doi.org/10.14456/abacodijournal.2023.47

Most read articles by the same author(s)