A Comparative Study of Matriculation Students’ Motivation for Learning Mathematics According to Gender in Five Burmese Migrant Learning Centers in Mae Sot, Thailand

Sandar Lwin, Richard Lynch

Abstract


Among the several components of motivation for learning, the
individual’s sense of goal orientations, the impression and value of learning tasks, control of learning beliefs and perceptions of personal self-efficacy for learning are important components of the Social Cognitive Theory of Motivation for Learning, which provides the theoretical framework for this study. A number of studies have
found that the gender gap in mathematics is highly correlated to perception of the culture of gender inequality in a society. The objectives of this study were to measure the levels of the matriculation students’ motivation in learning mathematics and to investigate if there was any difference according to gender in
five Burmese Migrant Learning Centers in Mae Sot. One hundred seven students (51 male and 56 female), aged 15-29 years, participated in the survey. The results of this study showed that the differences between genders on average motivation in learning mathematics were small among the migrant learning centers’ matriculation students. However, female students had a lower level in overall motivation, higher motivation in control of learning beliefs and lower motivation in the factor of perceived self-efficacy. The reasons for this are likely culturally rooted and sustained. Traditionally, in Burmese culture, boys are regarded and treated as being superior to girls. This cultural perspective most likely affects the girls’ motivation and self-confidence in their learning. The article concludes with recommendations for practice and for future research.


Keywords


Motivation; Social Cognitive Theory of Motivation; Gender Equality; Goal Orientations; Task Value; Control of Learning Beliefs; Self-Efficacy

Full Text:

PDF

References


Agnesia, R. H. (2010). Features Affecting Task-Motivation in English for Academic Purposes Online Learning. Second Language Studies, 1-34.

Artino, A. R. (2005). Review of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED499083.pdf

Bandura, A. (1988). Organizational applications of social cognitive theory. Australian Journal of Management, 13, 275-302. Retrieved from http:// www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Bandura/Bandura1988AJM.pdf

Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28, 117-148. Retrieved from http:// www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Bandura/Bandura1993EP.pdf

Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52,1-26. Retrieved from http://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Bandura /Bandura2001ARPr.pdf

Beede, D., Julian, T., & Langdon, D. (2011). Women in STEM: A Gender Gap to Innovation. Retrieved from http://www.esa.doc.gov/Reports/women-stem-gender-gap-innovation

Bussey, K., & Bandura, A. (1999). Social Cognitive Theory of Gender Development and Differentiation. Psychological Review, 106, 676-713. Retrieved from http://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Bandura/Bandura1999PR.pdf

Clarke, D. J. (2010). Independent Evaluation of UNICEF Education Programme. United Nations Children’s Fund. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/evaluation/files/Evaluation_of_UNICEF_Education_Programme_Improving_Access_to_Quality_Basic_Education_in_Myanmar_2006-2010_2010-002.pdf

Cvencek, D., Meltzoff, A., & Greenwald, A. (2011). Math–Gender Stereotypes in Elementary School Children. Child Development,Volume 82, 766–779. Retrieved from http://ilabs.washington.edu/sites/default/files/11Cvencek_Meltzoff_Greenwald_Gender_Math_Gender_Stereotypes_2011.pdf

Else-QUest, N. M., Hyde, J. S., & Linn, M. C. (2010). Cross-National Patterns of Gender Differences in Mathematics: A Meta-Analysis.. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/bul-136-1-103.pdf

Fuller, T. (2012). Myanmar’s Opposition Leader Takes Her Seat in Parliament 02 May 2012. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/03/world/asia /daw-aung-san-suu-kyi-myanmar-parliament-oath.html

Gillet, N., Vallerand, R. J. & Lafrenière, M-A. K. (2012).Intrinsic and extrinsic school motivation as a function of age: the mediating role of autonomy support. Social Psychology of Education, 15, 77-95. Retrieved from http://www.er.uqam.ca/nobel/r26710/LRCS/papers/Gille_2012_SPE.pdf

Globl Justice Center. (2013). Global Justic Center: Human Rights Through the Rule of Law. Retrieved from http://globaljusticecenter.net/index.php/publications/ advocacy-resources/103-the-gender-gap-and-women-s-political-power-in-myanmar-burma

Guiso, L., Monte, F., Sapienza, P., & Zingales, L. (2008). Culture, Gender, and Math. American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1164-1165. Retrieved from http://www.sciencemag.org/content/320/5880/1164.summary

Huitt, W. (2011). Motivation to learn. Retrieved from http://www.edpsycinteractive. org/topics/motivation/motivate.html

Hyde, J. (2008). Girls equal to boys in math performance. Monitor on Psychology, Vol 39, No. 8, 11. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/2008/09/ math.aspx

Inter-Parliamentary Union (2015). Women in national parliaments.Retrieved from http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/classif.htm

Stanford University Newsletter on Teaching (1998) Vol.10, No. 1: Capturing and Directing the Motivation to Learn. Retrieved from http://www.stanford.edu/ dept/CTL/cgi-bin/docs/newsletter/motivation_to_learn.pdf

Ledin, A., Bornmann, L., Gannon, F., & Wallon, G. (2007). A persistent problem:Traditional gender roles hold back female scientists. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/embor/journal/v8/n11/full/7401109.html

Lepper, M. R., Corpus, J. H., & Iyengar, S. S. (2005). Journal of Educational Psychology: American Psychological Association 2005, Vol. 97, No. 2, 184 –196 http://www.unco.edu/cebs/psychology/kevinpugh/motivation_project/reso urces/lepper_etal05.pdf

Office for Civil Rights OCR. (2012). Gender Equity in Education. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/gender-equity-in-education.pdf

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2012). Gender Equality in Education, Employment and Entrepreneurship: Final Report to the MCM 2012. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/employment/50423364.pdf

Pajares, F. (2002). Overview of social cognitive theory and of self-efficacy. Retrieved from http://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Pajares/eff.html

Praparpun, Y. and Lynch, R. (2013). In P. Phongpaichit and C. Baker,Editors, Essays on Thailand’s Economy and Society for Professor Chatthip Nartsupha at 72. Bangkok: Sangsan, pp. 253-274.

Pintrich, P. (1999). The role of motivation in promoting and sustaining self-reglated learning. International Journal of Educational Research 31, 459-470. Retrieved from http://literacymethods.wikispaces.com/file/view/10.1.1.1.4653.pdf

Pintrich, P., & Schunk, D. (1996). Motivation in Education: Theory, Research & Applications, Ch. 3. Retrieved from http://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Pajares/PS. html

Pintrich, P., Smith, D., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W. (1991). A manual for the use of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

Ragland, D. D. (2008). Attitude Variable Affecting Student's Acheivement. College of Education of TUI International. http://search.proquest.com/docview/304380248

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and. Contemporary Educational Psychology 25, 54–67. Retrieved from http://mmrg.pbworks.com/f/Ryan,+Deci+00.pdf

Sedghi, A. (2012). International women's day 2012: women's representation in politics. Retrieved from The Guardian: http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/data blog/2012/mar/07/women-representation-in-politics-worldwide

Top Universities. (2012). Retrieved from The STEM Gender Gap in Universities: http://www.topuniversities.com/courses/engineering/stem-gender-gap-universities

Taylor, R. T. (2012). Review of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) Using Reliability Generalization Techniques to Assess Scale Reliability. A dissertation submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Auburn University. Retrieved from http://etd.auburn.edu/handle/10415/3114

UNESCO. (2012). Officials Discuss Education Reform in Myanmar. Retrieved from http://www.unescobkk.org/education/news/article/officials-discuss-education-reform-in-myanmar/

UNESCO Institute of Statistics. (2013). UIS Statistics in Brief: Myanmar. Retrieved from http://stats.uis.unesco.org/unesco/TableViewer/document.aspx?ReportId= 121&IF_Language=eng&BR_Country=1040

World Economic Forum. (2012). Global gender gap. Retrieved from http://www. weforum.org/reports/global-gender-gap-report-2012

World Economic Forum. (2013). Global gender gap. Retrieved from http://www3 .weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2013.pdf

Yoon, J. R. (2009). The 9th WIN-Global Annual Meeting:Gender Equity and Women Scientists’ Role. Retrieved from http://www.winkorea.or.kr/eng/03_mactivity /mactivity_01.php?req_P=bv&req_BIDX=15&req_BNM=20b91bbc68d6b8c93338a00e0c58b030&req_VI=71&req_PC=0&req_CG=&sCATE=&sCHAR=


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.