Development of E-Readiness Scale in Blended Learning in Filmmaking Program for a Private University in Bangladesh – Initial Stage


  • Mohammad Shazzad Hossain Department of Media Studies and Journalism, University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Chompu Nuangjamnong



Although the Government of Bangladesh is pressuring all educational institutions to go online due to the COVID-19 pandemic, most of the higher educational institutes are finding it difficult to adjust to the new situation. While they have begun discussing the importance of online and blended learning, they are still waiting to return to face-to-face class once the pandemic is over. This is because they are still unprepared to embrace e-learning. This study aims to develop a unified scale to assess the higher education institute's e-readiness in Bangladesh to identify their strengths and weaknesses and formulate a plan for creating an e-learning environment. The findings of this study are based on a quantitative survey, and the study was completed using a sample size of 410 contributors 345 (84.1%) students, 34 (8.3%) teachers, and 31 (7.6%) administrators from the University of Liberal Arts, Bangladesh, a private university in Dhaka. Three separate assessment instruments were developed for the key stakeholders: students, teachers, and administrators. A systematic approach was used to create the institutional e-readiness scale with acceptable validity and reliability. The Scale-level Content Validity Index of the Averaging calculation method (S-CVI/Ave) value was 0.996, and the instruments' reliability coefficient Cronbach's Alpha was 0.949 (students), 0.935 (teachers), and 0.837 (administrators). The alpha values suggest the compiled instruments are good to excellent. This study indicates that the institutional e-readiness scale could assess the e-readiness of other universities in Bangladesh.


Anthony, B., Kamaludin, A., Romli, A., Rafei, A. F. M., Abdullah, A., Ming, G. L., et al. (2019). Exploring the role of blended learning for teaching and learning efectiveness in institutions of higher learning: An empirical investigation. Education and Information Technologies, 24(6), 3433–3466.

Akareem, H. S., & Hossain, S. S. (2012). Perception of Education Quality in Private Universities of Bangladesh: A Study from Students' Perspective. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 22(1), 11–33.

Ali, M., Hossain, S. M. K., & Ahmed, T. (2018). Effectiveness of E-learning for University Students: Evidence from Bangladesh. Asian Journal of Empirical Research, 8(10), 352–360.

Al-Masum, Md. A., & Chowdhury, S. I. (2013). e-Learning for Expanding Distance Education in Tertiary Level in Bangladesh: Problems and Progress. Higher Learning Research Communications, 3(4), 81.

Amin, K., Akter, A., & Azhar, A. (2016). Factors Affecting Private University Students' Intention to Adopt E-Learning Systemin Bangladesh. 10(2), 10–25.

Barnard, L., Lan, W. Y., To, Y. M., Paton, V. O., & Lai, S. L. (2009). Measuring self-regulation in online and blended learning environments. The Internet and Higher Education, 12(1), 1–6.

Bowyer, J., & Chambers, L. (2017). Evaluating blended learning: Bringing the elements together. Research Matters: A Cambridge Assessment Publication, 23, 17–26.

Carbonell, K. B., Dailey-Hebert, A., & Gijselaers, W. (2013). Unleashing the creative potential of faculty to create blended learning. The Internet and Higher Education, 18, 29–37.

Chowdhury, M. M. H., & Khatun, A. (2013). Modeling E-Learning Assisted Distance Education System for Bangladesh. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 56, 12.

Chang-Tik, C. (2018). Impact of learning styles on the community of inquiry presences in multi-disciplinary blended learning environments. Interactive Learning Environments, 26(6), 827–838.

Connelly, L. M. (2011). Cronbach's Alpha. Medsurg Nursing, 20(1), 45–47.

Dakduk, S., Santalla-Banderali, Z., & van der Woude, D. (2018). Acceptance of blended learning in executive education. SAGE Open, 8(3), 1–16.

Demirer, V., & Sahin, I. (2013). Effect of blended learning environment on transfer of learning: An experimental study. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 29(6), 518–529. https://doi. org/10.1111/jcal.12009

Dziuban, C., Hartman, J., Cavanagh, T. B., & Moskal, P. D. (2011). Blended Courses as Drivers of Institutional Transformation. In Kitchenham, A. (Ed.), Blended Learning across Disciplines: Models for Implementation. (pp. 17-37). doi:10.4018/978-1-60960-479-0.ch002

Gay, G. H. E. (2018). Fixing the 'Ready' in E-Learning Readiness. In M. Sinecen (Ed.), Trends in E-learning (pp. 65–83). InTech.

Govt Mulling Blending Learning: Dipu Moni. (2021, April 9). Daily Sun.

Gülbahar, Y. (2012). Study of Developing Scales for Assessment of the Levels of Readiness and Satisfaction of Participants in E-learning Environments. Ankara Universitesi Egitim Bilimleri Fakultesi Dergisi, 45(2), 119–137.

Holton, E. F., III, Coco, M. L., Lowe, J. L., & Dutsch, J. V. (2006). Blended delivery strategies for competency-based training. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 8(2), 210–228.

Hossain, A. T., Banna, K. H., Bailey, N., & Mamun, Md. A. A. (2017). Strengthening Resilience Through Media in Bangladesh: Final Evaluation. BBC Media Action.

Hwang, A., & Arbaugh, J. B. (2006). Virtual and traditional feedback-seeking behaviors: Underlying competitive attitudes and consequent grade performance. Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, 4, 1–28.

Hung, M.-L., Chou, C., Chen, C.-H., & Own, Z.-Y. (2010). Learner Readiness for Online Learning: Scale Development and Student Perceptions. Computers & Education, 55(3), 1080–1090.

İbili, E. (2020). Examination of Health Science University Students' Level of Readiness for E-learning. International Online Journal of Education and Teaching (IOJET), 7(3), 1010–1030.

Ilgaz, H., & Gülbahar, Y. (2015). A Snapshot of Online Learners: E-Readiness, e-Satisfaction and Expectations. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 16(2), 170–187.

Islam, K. M. A., & Salma, U. (2016). The Role of Private Universities in Higher Education of Bangladesh: An Empirical Investigation. International Journal of Finance and Banking Research, 2(4), 121–128.

Jasim, M. M. (2020, April 4). Private University Students Taking Online Classes. The Business Standard.

Jones, N. (2006), "E-College Wales, a case study of blended learning", in Bonk, C.J. and Graham, C.R. (Eds), Handbook of Blended Learning: Global Perspectives, Local Designs, Pfeiffer Publishing, San Francisco, CA, pp. 182-194.

Jones, N., Chew, E., Jones, C. and Lau, A. (2009), "Over the worst or at the eye of the storm?", Education þ Training, Vol. 51 No. 1, pp. 6-22.

Karmakar, C. K., & Wahid, C. M. (2000). Recommendations for Bangladesh Towards E-learning Readiness. Karmakar, Chandan Kumar, and CM Mufassil Wahid. "Recommendations for Bangladesh towards e-Learning Readiness." Department of Computer Science. Shah Jalal University of Science and Technology, 97–102.

Littlejohn, A., & Pegler, C. (2007). Preparing for blended e-learning. London: Routledge.

López-Pérez, M. V., Pérez-López, M. C., & Rodríguez-Ariza, L. (2011). Blended learning in higher education: Students’ perceptions and their relation to outcomes. Computers & Education, 56(3), 818–826.

Machado, C. (2007), "Developing an e-readiness model for higher education institutions: results of a focus group study", British Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 38 No. 1, pp. 72-82.

Moftakhari, M. M. (2013). Evaluating e-learning readiness of faculty of letters of Hacettepe. Master thesis. Ankara: Hacettepe University.

Mahmud, K. (2010). E-learning for Tertiary Level Education in Least Developed Countries: Implementation Obstaclesand Way Outs for Bangladesh. International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, 2(2), 150–155.

Motteram, G. (2006). 'Blended' education and the transformation of teachers: A long-term case study in postgraduate UK higher education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 37(1), 17–30.

Mercado, C. A. (2008). Readiness Assessment Tool for An eLearning Environment Implementation. Special Issue of the International Journal of the Computer, the Internet and Management, 16(SP3), 11.

Monem, M., & Baniamin, H. M. (2010). Higher Education in Bangladesh: Status, Issues and Prospects. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences (PJSS), 30(2), 293–305.

Moore, J. L., Dickson-Deane, C., & Galyen, K. (2011). e-Learning, Online Learning, and Distance Learning Environments: Are they the same? The Internet and Higher Education, 14(2), 129–135.

Park, Y., Yu, J. H., & Jo, I. H. (2016). Clustering blended learning courses by online behavior data: A case study in a Korean higher education institute. The Internet and Higher Education, 29, 1–11.

Parkes, M., Stein, S., & Reading, C. (2015). Student Preparedness for University E-learning Environments. The Internet and Higher Education, 25, 1–10.

Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2006). The Content Validity Index: Are You Sure You Know What's Being Reported? Critique and Recommendations. Research in Nursing & Health, 29(5), 489–497.

Polit, D. F., Beck, C. T., & Owen, S. V. (2007). Is the CVI an Acceptable Indicator of Content Validity? Appraisal and Recommendations. Research in Nursing & Health, 30(4), 459–467.

Progga, F. T., Shahria, MD. T., & Ahmed, N. (2020). The Effectiveness and Acceptance of Collaborative E-learning in the Context of Bangladesh. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Teaching, Assessment, and Learning for Engineering (TALE), 554–558.

Rainsbury, E. and Malcolm, P. (2003), "Extending the classroom boundaries - an evaluation of an asynchronous discussion board", Accounting Education, Vol 12 No. 1, pp. 49-61.

Rizk, N. (2004), "E-readiness assessment of small and medium enterprises in Egypt: a micro study", Topics in Middle Eastern and North African Economies, Vol. 6, available at: (accessed 14 April 2011).

Sarker, F. H., Mahmud, R. A., Islam, M. S., & Islam, K. (2018). Use of E-Learning at Higher Educational Institutions in Bangladesh. Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, 11(2), 210–223.

Schmidt, D. A., Baran, E., Thompson, A. D., Mishra, P., Koehler, M. J., & Shin, T. S. (2009). Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) the development and validation of an assessment instrument for preservice teachers. Journal of research on Technology in Education, 42(2), 123–149.

Tavakol, M., & Dennick, R. (2011). Making Sense of Cronbach's Alpha. International Journal of Medical Education, 2, 53–55.

Tuparova, D., & Tuparov, G. (2011). Implementation of blended learning scenarios for training of school teachers. ICL, pp. 285–289.

Whelan, R. (2008), "Use of ICT in education in the South Pacific: findings of the Pacific eLearning observatory", Distance Education, Vol. 29 No. 1, pp. 53-70

Why the Digital Classroom is Stumbling. (2020, March 29). Dhaka Tribune.

Yurdugül, H., & Sirakaya, D. A. (2013). The Scale of Online Learning Readiness: A Study of Validity and Reliability. Education and Science, 38(169), 391–406.




How to Cite

Hossain, M. S., & Nuangjamnong, C. . (2021). Development of E-Readiness Scale in Blended Learning in Filmmaking Program for a Private University in Bangladesh – Initial Stage. ABAC ODI JOURNAL Vision. Action. Outcome, 9(1), 162-180.