Influence of Attachment Styles on The Well-Being of Maldivian University and College Students, Being Mediated by Prosocial Behavior, Social Skills, Self-Esteem, and Trust in Others

Authors

  • Aishath Jinanee Ibrahim Ph.D. Candidate in Couselling Psychology, Graduate School of Human Sciences, Assumption University, Thailand.
  • Natalie Chantagul Ph.D., Graduate School of Human Sciences, Assumption University, Thailand.
  • Jayamala Madathil Ph.D., Graduate School of Human Sciences, Assumption University, Thailand.

Keywords:

Attachment Style, Well-Being, Prosocial Behavior, Social Skills, Self-Esteem, and Trust in Others

Abstract

The present investigation attempted to examine the direct and indirect influences of attachment style on well-being being mediated by prosocial behavior, social skills, self-esteem, and trust in others, and also to determine if the hypothesized paths would vary as a function of gender. A total of 1,110 Maldivian university and college students aged between 18 and 30 years consented to fill in a set of questionnaires. In the study two hierarchical models were posited, evaluated, and compared as to their efficacy in explaining the influence of the exogenous variable attachment style on the criterion variable of well-being, via the four cited mediating variables. Evaluation and comparison of the fit of these two nested models pointed to the direct path model as being more parsimonious and better fitting than the full indirect path model. Additionally, it was hypothesized that there are significant differences in the relationships proposed in the model, based on gender. The results confirmed that the patterns of structural relationships posited between attachment style and well-being operated similarly for the male and female Maldivian participants. In effect, no significant gender differences in the hypothesized relationships were found.

References

Abdi, B. (2010). Gender differences in social skills, problem behaviors, and academic competence of Iranian kindergarten children based on their parent and teacher rating. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 1175–1179. doi: 10.1016/ j.sbspro.2010.07.256

Alesina, A., & La Ferrara, E. (2002). Who trust others? Journal of Public Economics, 5(2), 207–234.

Archer, J., & Lloyd, B. (2002). Sex and gender (2nd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Barry, C. M., & Wentzel, K. R. (2006). Friend influence on prosocial behavior: The role of motivational factors and friendship characteristics. Developmental Psychology, 42(1), 153–163. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.42.1.153

Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L. M. (1991). Attachment style among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(2), 226–244.

Baumeister, R. F., & Bushman, B. J. (2008). Social psychology and human nature. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.

Bohnet, I., & Zeckhauser, R. (2004). Trust, risk, and betrayal. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 55(4), 467–484.

Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss (Vol. 1) (2nd ed.). New York: Basic Books.

Brown, J. D., & Mankowski, T. A. (1993). Self-esteem, mood, and self evaluation: Change in mood and the way you see you. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(3), 421–430.

Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J .S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 445–455). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Chang, W. C. (2009). Social capital and subjective happiness in Taiwan. International Journal of Social Economics, 36(8), 844–868.

Ciechanowski, P., Sullivan, M., Jensen, M., Romano, J., & Summers, H. (2003). The relationship of attachment style to depression, catastrophizing, and health care utilization in patients with chronic pain. Pain, 104(3), 627–637.

Collins, N. L., & Read, S. (1990). Adult attachment, working models, and relationship quality in dating couples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(4), 644–663. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.58.4.644

Croson, R., & Buchan, N. (1999). Gender and culture: International experimental evidence from trust game. American Economic Review, 89(2), 386–91.

Denmark, F. L. (1993). Women leadership and empowerment. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 17(3), 343–356.

Dereli, E., & Karakus, O. (2011). An examination of attachment styles and social skills of university students. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 9(2), 731–744.

Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction With Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75.

Durlak, J. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2007). The impact of after-school programs that promote personal and social skills. Chicago, IL: Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning. Retrieved from files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ ED505368.pdf

Eagly, A. H., & Steffen, V. J. (1984). Gender stereotypes stem from distribution of women and men into social roles. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(4), 735–754.

Eagly, A. H., & Wood, W. (1991). Explaining sex differences in social behavior: A meta-analytic perspective. Personality and Social Psychological Bulletin, 17, 306–315.

Feeney, J. A., & Noller, P. (1990). Attachment style as a predictor of adult romantic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(2), 281–291.

Feingold, A. (1994). Gender differences in personality: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 429–456.

Fraley, R. C. (2010). A brief overview of adult attachment theory and research. Retrieved from http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/rcfarley/attachment.htm

Frazier, P., Greer, C., Gabrielsen, S., Tennen, H., Park, C., & Tomich, P. (2013). The relationship between trauma exposure and prosocial behavior. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 5(3), 286–294. doi: 10.1037/ a0027255

Griffin, D. W., & Bartholomew, K. (1994). The metaphysics of measurement: The case of adult attachment. In K. Bartholomew & D. Perlman (Eds.), Advances in personal relationships: Attachment processes in adulthood (Vol. 5, pp. 17–52). London: Kingsley.

Haney, P., & Durlak, J. A. (1998). Changing self-esteem in children and adolescents: A meta-analytical review. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27(4), 423–433.

Hastings, P. D., Utendale, W. T., & Sullivan, C. (2007). The socialization of prosocial development. In J. Grusec & P. D. Hastings (Eds.), The handbook of socialization: Theory and research (pp. 638–664). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. R. (1994). Attachment as an organizational framework for research on close relationships. Psychology Inquiry, 5(1), 1–22.

Helliwell, J. F. (2003). How's life? Combining individual and national variables to explain subjective well-being. Economic Modeling, 20(2), 331–360.

Helliwell, J. F., & Huang, H. (2011). Well-being and trust in the workplace. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12(5), 747–767.

Helliwell, J. F., & Wang, S. (2010). Trust and well-being. International Journal of Well-Being, 1(1), 42–78. doi: 10.5502/ijw.vlil.9

Heppner, P. P., & Petersen, C. H. (1982). The development and implications of a personal problem solving inventory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29(1), 66–75.

Hooghe, M., Reesken, T., Stolle, D. M., & Trappers, A. (2009). Ethnic diversity and generalized trust in Europe: A cross-national multilevel study. Comparative Political Studies, 42(2), 198–223.

Hudson, J. (2006). Institutional trust and subjective well-being across the EU. Kyklos, 59(2), 43–62.

Joseph, S., Linley, P., Harwood, J., Lewis, C. A., & McCollam, P. (2004). Rapid assessment of well-being: The Short Depression-Happiness Scale (SDHS). Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice, 77, 463–478.

Kassin, S., Fein, S., & Markus, H. R. (2011). Social psychology (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Kawakami, C., White, J. B., & Langer, E. J. (2000). Mindful and masculine: Freeing women leaders from the constraints of gender roles. Journal of Social Issues, 56(1), 49–63.

Kramer, R. M. (1999). Trust and distrust in organizations: Emerging perspectives, enduring questions. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 569–598.

La Guardia, J. G., Ryan, R. M., Couchman, C. E., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Within-person variation in security of attachment: A self-determination theory perspective on attachment, need fulfillment, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(3), 367–384. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.79.3.367

Laukka, P. (2007). Uses of music and psychological well-being among the elderly. Journal of Happiness Studies, 8, 215–241. doi: 10.1007/s10902-006-9024-3

Lavy, S., & Littman-Ovadia, H. (2011). All you need is love? Strengths mediate the negative associations between attachment orientations and life satisfaction. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(7), 1050–1055.

Levy, K. N. (2005). The implications of attachment theory and research for understanding borderline personality disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 959–986. doi: 10.1017/S0954579405050455

Mallinckrodt, B., & Wei, M. (2005). Attachment, social competences, social support, and psychological distress. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(3), 358–367. doi: 10. 1037/0022-0167.52.3.358

Man, P. (1991). The influence of peer and parents on youths’ life satisfaction in Hong Kong. Social Indicators Research, 24, 347–365.

Mayer, R. C., & Davis, J. H. (1999). The effect of the performance appraisal system on trust for management: A field quasi-experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 123–136.

Mikulincer, M. (1998). Adult attachment style and affect regulation: Strategic variations in self-appraisals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(2), 420–435. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.75.2.420

Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2007). Attachment in adulthood: Structure, dynamics, and change. New York: The Guilford Press.

Mikulincer, M., Shaver, P. R., & Pereg, D. (2003). Attachment theory and affect regulation: The dynamics, development, and cognitive consequences of attachment-related strategies. Motivation and Emotion, 27(2), 77–102.

Morrow-Howell, N., Hinterlong, J., Rozario, P. A., & Tang, F. (2003). Effects of volunteering on the well-being of older adults. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 58(3), S137–S145.

Morrow-Howell, N., Kinnevy, S., & Mann, M. (1999). The perceived benefits of participation in volunteer and educational activities. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 32(2), 65–80.

Murphy, B., & Bates, G. M. (1997). Adult attachment style and vulnerability to depression. Personality and Individual Differences, 22(6), 835–844. doi: 10.1016/s01918869(96)00277-2

Newton, E. K., Laible, D., Carlo, G., Steele, J. S., & McGinley, M. (2014). Do sensitive parents foster kind children or vice versa? Bidirectional influences between children’s prosocial behavior and parental sensitivity. Developmental Psychology, 50(6), 1808–1816. doi: 10.1037/a0036495

Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2001). Gender differences in depression. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10(5), 173–176.

Oliver, E. J., & Wong, J. (2003). Intergroup prejudice in multiethnic setting. American Journal of Political Science, 47(4), 567–582.

Orth, U., Maes, J., & Schmitt, M. (2015). Self-esteem development across life span: A longitudinal study with a large sample from Germany. Developmental Psychology, 51(2), 248–259. doi: 10.1037/a0038481

Pettigrew, T. F., Tropp, L. R., Wagner, U., & Christ, O. (2011). Recent advances in intergroup contact theory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(3), 271–280.

Pinquart, M., & Sorensen, S. (2000). Influences of socioeconomic status, social network, and competence on subjective well-being in later life: A meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging, 15(2), 187–224. doi: 10.1037//0882-7974.15.2.187

Pinquart, M., & Sorensen, S. (2006). Gender differences in caregiver stressors, social resources, and health: An updated meta-analysis. The Journal of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 61(1), P33–P45.

Rushton, J. P., Chrisjohn, R. D., & Fekken, G. C. (1981). The altruistic personality and the self-report Altruism Scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 2, 293–302.

Sable, P. (1997). Attachment, detachment, and borderline personality disorder. Psychotherapy, 34(2), 171–181.

Sasson-Levy, O. (2003). Feminism and military gender practices: Israeli women soldiers in "masculine" roles. Sociological Inquiry, 73(3), 440–465.

Scandura, T. A., & Ragins, B. R. (1993). The effect of sex and gender role orientation on mentorship in male dominated occupations. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 43(3), 251–265.

Shiota, M. N., Keltner, D., & John, O. P. (2006). Positive emotion dispositions differentially associated with Big Five personality and attachment style. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 1(2), 61–71.

Siddall, J., Huebner, E. S., & Jiang, X. (2013). A prospective study of differential sources of school-related social support and adolescent global life satisfaction. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 83(1), 107–114. doi: 10.1111/ajop.12006

Simpson, J. A., Collins, W. A., Tran, S., & Haydon, K. C. (2007). Attachment and the experiences and expression of emotions in romantic relationships: A developmental perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(2), 355–367. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.92.2.355

Stolle, D., Soroka, S., & Johnston, R. (2008). When does diversity erode trust? Neighborhood diversity, interpersonal trust, mediating effect of social interaction. Political Studies, 56(1), 57–75.

Tamaki, K., & Takahashi, J. (2013). The relationship between attachment style and social skills in terms of the four-category model of attachment style. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(9), 84–90.

Tsai, J. L., Ying, Y. W., & Lee, P. A. (2001). Cultural predictors of self-esteem: A study of Chinese American female and male young adults. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 7(3), 284–297.

Twenge, J. M., & Campbell, W. K. (2001). Age and birth cohort differences in self-esteem: A cross-temporal meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 5(4), 321–344.

van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Kroonenberg, P. M. (1988). Cross-cultural patterns of attachment: A meta-analysis of the Strange Situation. Child Development, 59, 147–156.

Van Lange, P. A. M., Otten, W., Bruin, E. M. N., & Joireman, J. A. (1997). Development of prosocial, individualistic and competitive orientations: Theory and preliminary evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(4), 733–746.

Walker, S. (2005). Gender differences in the relationship between young children's peer-related social competence and individual differences in theory of mind. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 166(3), 297–312.

Walker, S., Irving, K., & Berthelsen, D. (2002). Gender influence on preschool children's social problem-solving strategies. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 163(2), 197–209.

Webster, J. D. (1997). Attachment style and well-being in elderly adults: A preliminary investigation. Canadian Journal on Aging, 16(1), 101–111.

Webster, J. D. (1998). Attachment style, reminiscence functions, and happiness in young and elderly adults. Journal of Aging Studies, 12(3), 315–330.

Weinstein, N., & Ryan, R. N. (2010). When helping helps: Autonomous motivation for prosocial behavior and its influence on well-being for the helper and recipient. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(2), 222–244. doi: 10.1037/ a0016984

Westmass, J. L., & Silver, R. C. (2001). The role of attachment in response to victims of life crises. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(3), 425–438. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.80.3.425

Wilson, J., & Musick, M. (1999). The effects of volunteering on the volunteer. Law and Contemporary Problems, 62, 141–169.

Yamagishi, T., & Yamagishi, M. (1994). Trust and commitment in United States and Japan. Motivation and Emotion, 18, 129–166.

Yip, W., Subramanian, S. V., Mitchell, A. D., Lee, D. T., Wang, J., & Kawachi, I. (2007). Does social capital enhance health and well-being? Evidence from rural China. Social Sciences & Medicine, 64(1), 35–49.

You, H. S., & Malley-Morrison, K. (2000). Young adult attachment styles and intimate relationships with close friends a cross-cultural study of Koreans and Caucasian Americans. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31(4), 528–534.

Zilberstein, K. (2014). The use and limitations of attachment theory in child psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 51, 93–103. doi: 10.1037/a0030930

Downloads

Published

2018-12-27