The Role of Empowerment, Organizational Commitment and Working Environment on Job Performance in AAA Non-Profit Organization


  • Khin Ei Ei Hlaing
  • Maria Socorro C Fernando

DOI: 10.14456/abacodijournal.2023.36
Published: 2023-10-24


Empowerment, Working Environment, Organizational Commitment, Job Performance


Empowerment has become a big part of our today’s job performance. For organizations in a highly competitive environment, empowerment ensures sustained productivity and creating a committed workforce. This research study assesses the needs of three factors that help to enhance individual’s job performance in the non-government organization: empowerment, working environment, and organizational commitment. A mixed research methodology was used to study the whole population in the organization. All 28 local employees responded to the survey questionnaire for quantitative research, whereas 8 key employees were selected to participate in an individual interview. The quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive analysis and PNI Modified. The qualitative data was analyzed using inter-coding method. The results from PNI Modified show that empowerment, working environment, and organizational commitment are the factors that have to be prioritized. The qualitative data used appreciative inquiry (AI) to explore the topic of empowerment, working environment and organizational commitment. Based on the overall results, the current situation of job performance is favorable, but PNI Modified suggested that some factors should be prioritized in order to enhance individual’s job performance. Therefore, strategies are  presented based on the findings.


Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63(1), 1-18.

Allen, T. D., French, K. A., Dumani, S., & Shockley, K. M. (2016). Health and well-being at work: A survey of organizational health practices (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association. doi: 10.1037/14867-000

Angle, H. L., & Perry, J. L. (1981). An empirical assessment of organizational commitment and organizational effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 26(1), 1-14.

Bateman, T. S., & Strasser, S. (1984). A longitudinal analysis of the antecedents of organizational commitment. Academy of Management Journal, 27(1), 95-112.

Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1988). The empowerment process: Integrating theory and practice. Academy of Management Review, 13(3), 471-482. doi: 10.5465/amr.1988.4306983

Grawitch, M. J., Gottschalk, M., & Munz, D. C. (2010). The path to a healthy workplace: A critical review linking healthy workplace practices, employee well-being, and organizational improvements. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 62(3), 129-147. doi:10.1037/a0020720

Gregory, B. T., Albritton, M. D., & Osmonbekov, T. (2010). The mediating role of psychological empowerment on the relationships between P-O fit, job satisfaction, and in-role performance. Journal of business and psychology, 25(4), 639-647.

Greenberg, J., & Baron, R. A. (2008). Behavior in Organizations (9th ed.). Pearson Education.

Griffin, M. L., & Hepburn, J. R. (2005). Side-bets and reciprocity as determinants of organizational commitment among correctional officers. Journal of Criminal Justice, 33(6), 611-625.

Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1976). Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16(2), 250-279. doi:10.1016/0030-5073(76)90016-7

Koberg, C. S., Boss, R. W., Senjem, J. C., & Goodman, E. A. (1999). Antecedents and outcomes of empowerment: Empirical evidence from the health care industry. Group & organization management, 24(1), 71-91.

Kundu, S. C., & Vora, J. A. (2004). Creating a Talented Workforce for Delivering Service Quality. Human Resource Planning, 27(2), 40-51.

Lambert, M. J., & Hawkins, E. J. (2004). Measuring Outcome in Professional Practice: Considerations in Selecting and Using Brief Outcome Instruments. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35(5), 492-499.

Morrison, E. W., & Phelps, C. C. (1999). Taking charge at work: Extra role efforts to initiate workplace change. Academy of Management Journal, 42(4), 403-419.

Mowday, R. T., Steers, R. M., & Porter, L. W. (1979). The Measurement of Organizational Commitment. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 14, 224-247.

Murphy, K. R. (1989). Is the relationship between cognitive ability and job performance stable over time?. Human performance, 2(3), 183-200.

Pelit, E., Öztürk, Y., & Arslantürk, Y. (2011). The effects of employee empowerment on employee job satisfaction. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 23(6), 784-802.

Porter, L. W., Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. T., & Boulian, P. V. (1974). Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover among Psychiatric Technicians. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59, 603-609.

Schermerhorn, J. R. (1993). Management for Productivity. John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Seibert, S. E., Kraimer, M. L., & Liden, R. C. (2001). A Social Capital Theory of Career Success. Academy of Management Journal, 44(2), 219-237.

Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). An empirical test of a comprehensive model of intrapersonal empowerment in the workplace. American journal of community psychology, 23(5), 601-629.

Thomas, K. W., & Velthouse, B. A. (1990). Cognitive elements of empowerment: An “interpretive” model of intrinsic task motivation. Academy of Management Review, 15(4), 666-681. doi:10.5465/amr.1990.4308154

Viswesvaran, C., & Ones, D. S. (2000). Perspectives on models of job performance. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 8(4), 216-226.




How to Cite

Khin Ei Ei Hlaing, & Fernando, M. S. C. (2023). The Role of Empowerment, Organizational Commitment and Working Environment on Job Performance in AAA Non-Profit Organization. ABAC ODI JOURNAL Vision. Action. Outcome, 11(1), 168-178.