The Effectual Design Method for Internationalizing Architectural and Engineering Services: Insights from Swiss Design Entrepreneurs


  • Prisca Valentino Silpakorn University
  • Claus Schreier Mahidol University International College, Mahidol University, Salaya
  • Kaedsiri Jaroenwisan Silpakorn University

DOI: 10.59865/abacj.2023.60
Published: 2023-11-01


architectural design; engineering design; entrepreneurial method; effectuation; international opportunity


This research explores the use of effectual and causal design logic in architectural and engineering design internationalization. Specifically, it aims to understand how individual design entrepreneurs act across three international opportunity design problem spaces: (a) formation, (b) evaluation, and (c) exploitation. This qualitative multiple-case study employed phenomenographic, semi-structured interviews with 17 Swiss architectural and engineering design entrepreneurs.

The findings indicate that international opportunity formation is created via the dominant effectual design logic principle; international opportunity evaluation mainly applies causal design logic; and international opportunity exploitation primarily uses actions combining effectual and causal design logic principles. This research contributes to the architectural and engineering design internationalization literature, which focuses only on causal design logic and provides a practical integrative model for successful international architectural and engineering design services.