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Author Guidelines

For Paper Submission and Manuscript Preparation 

General Instructions

The ABAC JOURNAL accepts research papers, academic articles, and review articles written in Standard British or American English, not a mixture. Poorly written English may result in rejection or return of the submission for language editing. 

Starting from June 2018, all entries are subject to an initial check (consistent with our aim & scope, structure, author guidelines, plagiarism, language checking) and will be notified within 6-8 weeks after the submission date online of initial check result before proceeding to the review process.

The articles must fall within the aim and scope of the Journal, that is, business management & economics as a priority and their related fields in social sciences. 

Research or academic papers must be 4000-6000 words in length inclusive of references, tables, graphs, charts, and figures.

For research papers, the author is advised to include all elements of the structure below:

  • Title of paper must be clear, concise, and informative, all in uppercase, not exceeding 15 words or within three typeset lines.
  • Abstract (150-200 words) Abstracts must include sufficient information for readers to judge the nature and significance of the topic, the adequacy of the investigative strategy, the research results and conclusions. The abstract should summarize the major results of the work and not merely list topics to be discussed. It is an outline or brief summary of your paper in a well-developed paragraph, should be exact in wording, and understandable to a wide audience.
  • Keywords (3-5), immediately after the abstractkeywords are for indexing purposes, and ideally should be different from the title.
  • Introduction This section provides necessary background of the paper and a brief review the existing knowledge, and importance of the problem. 
  • Literature Review Discussion of the research work of others in the field or topic area and how your work will enhance and contribute to the field.  Citation of work by others should follow APA (6th edition) style e.g. Ojie (2007) asserts that…; Mo Yan (2005: 170) also speaks highly of…
  • Methodology This section indicates clear research objectives, conceptual framework(s) (if any), research question(s), hypotheses, population and sample, research instruments, and the data collection process. This section provides clear steps used in conducting your research. It means all procedures need to be described in sufficient detail to allow someone to replicate it.
  • Results and Discussion This section covers the analysis of the dataIt should include statistics in tables, charts, graphs, or pictures analyzed against hypotheses or in answering the research question(s) in quantitative research, or descriptive analyses of categories in qualitative research. Results is purely descriptive. Discussion describes and interprets the findings, placing them in a bigger context, relating them to other work(s) and issues outlined in the Introduction.
  • Conclusion and Recommendations This section summarizes your study’s key findings and implications. It should not be long and repetitive, but capture the essence of the study discussed in all previous sections. It should briefly cover the limitations of your research and suggested future direction for further research.
  • For academic articles, there are no set rules. We recommend the structure below:
  1.        Introduction
  2.        Discussion
    2.1  subheading
    2.2  subheading
  3.        Conclusion

The author is advised to follow a logical, understandable point of argument. Break your main argument into sub-headings and present them in an outline at the end of the Introduction.

  • References List all the sources you have cited in the body of your research. It states the author/s of the source, the material's year of publication, the name or title of the source material, as well as its electronic retrieval information, including the date it was accessed, if these were gathered from the Internet.

For book or article reviews, the author should adhere to a 3-section structure as follows:

  • Bibliographic entry Please follow a 3-headings format. For example,


Building Adolescent Literacy in Today’s English Classroom

Author: Randy Bomer

Heinemann, Portsmouth, NH: 2011

Paperback, 334 pages; ISBN – 13: 978-0-325-01394-7, ISBN-10: 0-325-01394-2

  • Summary of the content Give a clear synopsis of the main points of the book. This section may include credibility/authority of the author in the field (if applicable). What the main purpose of the book is, who is the target audience, and how the author convinces the reader to agree with his main points.
  • Critical evaluation This is the most important part of a book/article review. Your role is to critique and make an argument about the merit of the book—to show the reader your view on how successful the author accomplished what he or she was intending to accomplish in writing this book or article. 
  • The length of a book review is not to exceed 1200 words

Submission Guide

Authors are welcome to submit their manuscripts at any time via our online submission system at

The peer review process normally takes two months. The author will be kept informed of the current status of their paper.

Articles being currently considered for publication by other journals will not be accepted by the ABAC JOURNAL.

Specific Instructions:

  • Format The preferred format for the text and tables of a manuscript is MS Word DOC.
  • Paper size Manuscripts must be typed double-spaced on A4 size paper.
  • Margins Use a 1-inch (2.54 cm) margin on all sides of each page—left, right, top, and bottom
  • Spacing Double space lines throughout the paper including appendices, footnotes. Exceptions: Triple or quadruple spacing can be done around equations. Single or one-and-a-half spacing can be done in tables or figures. Indent the first line of every paragraph a standard ―Tab‖ key space (½ inch).
  • Font Size and Type. Times New Roman font (14 pts. bold for title; 12 pts. for author(s) and affiliation; 12 pts. bold for headings and subheadings; and 12 pts. for text)
  • Titles should be no more than three typeset lines.
  • Headings should be in bold type, in 14 point Times New Roman. First-level headings should be aligned to the left with all caps. One-line space should separate headings from the preceding text. 
  • Subheadings Italicize the subheadings in the bold type, single-spaced; in 12 point Times New Roman. Capitalize First Letter of Each Word
  • Sub-heading Two       Bold, Left, Capitalize First Letter of Each Word
  • Sub-heading Three Indented, bold, Capitalize First Letter of Each Word
  • References  The Journal uses American Psychological Association (APA) style (6th edition).
    - Include only those sources you have cited in your paper.
    - Exceptions are personal communications, classical religious works such as the Bible or the Qur’an, and classical works. These do not need to appear in the References list.
    - Position the first line of each reference flush left, with subsequent lines wrapping with a ½-inch (hanging) indent.
    - Organize the list in alphabetical order according to the first letter beginning each entry. Usually, the author’s last name is the first piece of information in each entry. Use initials for the author’s first/middle names.
    - Use the following format for your reference list:
          Dellana, S., Collins, W., and West, D. (2000). Online education in a management science course – effectiveness and performance factors. Journal of Education for Business, 76, 43 – 48.
          Sekaran, U., (2000). Research methods for business: A skill building approach. (3rd Ed). John Wiley & Sons, NY.
          Stewart, D. W. (1981). The Application and Misapplication of Factor Analysis in Marketing Research. Journal of Marketing Research18(2), 51-62.
  •  Tables and Figures
    - Line drawings should be of high resolution and high contrast. For color or grayscale photographs (halftones), use a minimum of 300 dpi (.TIFF or .JPG).
    - Provide captions to figures 
    - Use the table function of Microsoft Word.
    - Figure and tables should be placed as close as possible to where they are mentioned in the text
  • Page Numbering:  Number all pages of the paper, beginning with the title page. The number is in the bottom right corner (1 inch from right and ½ inch from the bottom page edges).


Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The manuscript must not have been published or submitted elsewhere for consideration. (A brief explanation will be necessary to clarify this matter.)
  2. The submitted file is in Microsoft Word document file format.
  3. Where available, URLs for the references must be provided.
  4. The text must be double-spaced; (a 12-point font Times New Roman; italics rather than underlining except for URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables must be placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  5. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.
  6. Attached to all submitted articles must be a 150-200 words abstractKeywords (3-5)  and a statement containing the author’s present academic or nonacademic position and an address where he or she may be contacted by the editors or interested readers. Authors should place their names on the cover page but the name should not appear on headers or elsewhere in the body of the article. Full contact details for the corresponding author, including email, mailing address and telephone numbers should also be provided. As the ABAC Journal is a peer reviewed journal, the author must be follow the instructions about  Ensuring a Blind Review .
  7. Make sure that there are no grammatical, spellings, or content errors in articles prior to submitting to the ABAC Journal.

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