Service Quality Aspects Influence on Student Satisfaction and Loyalty in Chongqing China

Main Article Content

tingting cao


Purpose: Higher education improves quality by emphasizing the diversity of students as customers (stakeholders) and students as subjects, flexibility in student demand for universities, and extensive global competition. Thus, this paper determines the factor affecting student satisfaction and student loyalty, which are faculty services, on-campus infrastructure, academic aspects, impact on university reputation, and access to university services. Research design, data, and methodology: Quantitative method (n=500) was used to conduct a questionnaire survey on college students from three well-known universities in Chongqing. A non-probability sampling includes judgment sampling, quota sampling, and convenience sampling to collect data. Structural equation model (SEM) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to analyze the data, including model fitting, reliability, and validity. Results: Faculty service, campus infrastructure, academic aspects, reputation, access, and student satisfaction have a significant impact on student loyalty. Student satisfaction strongly influences student loyalty, followed by campus infrastructure, access, reputation, faculty service, and academic aspects. Conclusions: All six hypotheses can fulfill the research objectives. Therefore, it is suggested that universities pay attention to campus infrastructure construction, improve the academic level, establish a better visiting mechanism and improve their reputation, to make students satisfied and loyal.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
cao, tingting. (2023). Service Quality Aspects Influence on Student Satisfaction and Loyalty in Chongqing China. AU-GSB E-JOURNAL, 16(1), 140-149.
Author Biography

tingting cao

Criminal Investigation School, Southwest University of Political Science and Law.


Abdullah, F. (2006). The development of HEdPERF: a new measuring instrument of service quality for the higher education sector. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 30(6), 569-581.

Ali, F., Zhou, Y., Hussain, K., Nair, P. K., & Ragavan, N. A. (2016). Does higher education service quality effect student satisfaction, image and loyalty?: A study of international students in Malaysian public universities. Quality Assurance in Education, 24(1), 70-94.

Alves, H., & Raposo, M. (2007). Conceptual Model of Student Satisfaction in Higher Education. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 18(5), 571-588.

Anderson, E. W., Fornell, C., & Lehmann, D. R. (1994). Customer Satisfaction, Market Share, and Profitability: Findings from Sweden. Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 53-66.

Annamdevula, S., & Bellamkonda, R. S. (2016). Effect of student perceived service quality on student satisfaction, loyalty and motivation in Indian universities: Development of HiEduQual. Journal of Modelling in Management, 11(2), 488-517.

Arif, S., & Ilyas, M. (2013). Quality of work-life model for teachers of private universities in Pakistan. Quality Assurance in Education, 21(3), 282-298.

Badri, M., & Mohaidat, J. (2014). Antecedents of parent-based school reputation and loyalty: an international application. International Journal of Educational Management, 28(6), 635–654.

Bassi, F. (2019). Students’ satisfaction in higher education: the role of practices, needs and beliefs of teachers. Quality Assurance in Education, 27(1), 56–69.

Becket, N., & Brookes, M. (2008). Quality Management Practice in Higher Education - What Quality Are We Actually Enhancing? The Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism, 7(1), 40-54.

Bennett, R., & Rentschler, R. (2003). Foreword by the Guest Editors. Corporate Reputation Review, 6(3), 207-210.

Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 238–246.

Bush, V., Ferrell, O. C., & Thomas, J. L., Jr. (1998). Marketing the Business School: An Exploratory Investigation. Journal of Marketing Education, 20(1), 16-23.

Chandra, T., Hafni, L., Chandra, S., Purwati, A. A., & Chandra, J. (2019). The influence of service quality, university image on student satisfaction and student loyalty. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 26(5), 1533–1549.

Chaudhary, S., & Dey, A. K. (2021). Influence of student-perceived service quality on sustainability practices of university and student satisfaction. Quality Assurance in Education, 29(1), 29-40.

Chen, H. H., Fang, X. J., Zhou, A. H., & Liu, D. P. (2019). Social Survey Methods (1st ed.). Geocryol.

Chong, Y. S., & Ahmed, P. K. (2015). Student motivation and the 'feel good' factor: an empirical examination of motivational predictors of university service quality evaluation. Studies in Higher Education, 40(1), 158-177.

Chung Sea Law, D. (2010). Quality assurance in post-secondary education: the student experience. Quality Assurance in Education, 18(4), 250-270.

Davis, K. (2001). Academic advising: a comprehensive handbook (book review). Journal of College Student Development, 42(5), 493-497.

Dennis, C., Papagiannidis, S., Alamanos, E., & Bourlakis, M. (2016). The role of brand attachment strength in higher education. Journal of Business Research, 69(8), 3049-3057.

Doll, W., Weidong, X., & Gholamreza, T. (1994). A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the End-User Computing Satisfaction Instrument. MIS Quarterly, 18(4), 1-10.

Elliott, K. M., & Healy, M. A. (2001). Key Factors Influencing Student Satisfaction Related to Recruitment and Retention. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 10(4), 1-11.

Elliott, K. M., & Shin, D. (2002). Student Satisfaction: An alternative approach to assessing this important concept. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 24(2), 197-209.

El Said, G. R. (2021). How Did the COVID-19 Pandemic Affect Higher Education Learning Experience? An Empirical Investigation of Learners’ Academic Performance at a University in a Developing Country. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, 2021, 1–10.

Errey, R., & Wood, G. (2011). Lessons from a student engagement pilot study: benefits for students and academics. Australian Universities Review, 53(1), 21-34.

Esfijani, A., Hussain, F., & Chang, E. (2013). University social responsibility ontology. International Journal of Engineering Intelligent Systems, 21(4), 271-281.

Fernandes, C., Ross, K., & Meraj, M. (2013). Understanding student satisfaction and loyalty in the UAE HE sector. International Journal of Educational Management, 27(6), 613-630.

Firdaus, A. (2005). The development of HEdPERF: a new measuring instrument of service quality for higher education sector. Global Issues Local Solutions, 1(2), 5-7.

Fornell, C. (1992). A National Customer Satisfaction Barometer: The Swedish Experience. Journal of Marketing, 56(1), 6.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis. Pearson College Division.

Harvey, L. (2003). Student feedback. Quality in Higher Education, 9(1), 3-20.

Hopwood, C. J., & Donnellan, M. B. (2010). How should the internal structure of personality inventories be evaluated? Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14(3), 332–346.

Hsu, S.-H., Chen, W.-H., & Hsueh, J.-T. (2006). Application of customer satisfaction study to derive customer knowledge. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 17(4), 439-454.

Jancey, J., & Burns, S. (2013). Institutional factors and the postgraduate student experience. Quality Assurance in Education, 21(3), 311-322.

Johnson, M. D., Gustafsson, A., Andreassen, T. W., Lervik, L., & Cha, J. (2001). The evolution and future of national customer satisfaction index models. Journal of Economic Psychology, 22(2), 217-245.

Johnston, R., & Kong, X. (2011). The customer experience: a road-map for improvement. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 21(1), 5-24.

Kashif, M., & Ting, H. (2014). Service-orientation and teaching quality: business degree students’ expectations of effective teaching. Asian Education and Development Studies, 3(2), 163-180

Kim, H. J. (2011). Service Orientation, Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction, and Customer Loyalty: Testing a Structural Model. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 20(6), 619-637.

Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (1st ed.). The Guilford Press.

Larasati, A., Hidayati, L., & Chisbiyah, L. A. (2014). Designing service quality model for vocational higher education. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 9(22), 17801-17811.

Le Roux, A., & Van Rensburg, R. J. (2014). Student perceptions of customer experience in a higher education environment. Acta Commercii, 14(1), 1-12.

Li, B., & Pibulcharoensit, S. (2022). Factors Affecting Satisfaction and Trust of Art Students in Senior High Schools in Chengdu . AU-GSB E-JOURNAL, 15(1), 125-136.

Manatos, M. J., Sarrico, C. S., & Rosa, M. J. (2017). The integration of quality management in higher education institutions: a systematic literature review. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 28(1-2), 159-175.

Mandhachitara, R., & Poolthong, Y. (2011). A model of customer loyalty and corporate social responsibility. Journal of Services Marketing, 25(2), 122-133.

Martirosyan, N. (2015). An examination of factors contributing to student satisfaction in Armenian higher education. International Journal of Educational Management, 29(2), 177-191.

Masserini, L., Bini, M., & Pratesi, M. (2019). Do Quality of Services and Institutional Image Impact Students' Satisfaction and Loyalty in Higher Education? Social Indicators Research, 146(1-2), 91-115.

Mehralizadeh, Y., & Safaeemoghaddam, M. (2010). The applicability of quality management systems and models to higher education: A new perspective. The TQM Journal, 22(2), 175-187.

Mizikaci, F. (2006). A systems approach to program evaluation model for quality in higher education. Quality Assurance in Education, 14(1), 37-53.

Osman, A. R., & Saputra, R. S. (2019). A pragmatic model of student satisfaction: a viewpoint of private higher education. Quality Assurance in Education, 27(2), 142-165.

Panda, S., Pandey, S. C., Bennett, A., & Tian, X. (2019). University brand image as competitive advantage: a two-country study. International Journal of Educational Management, 33(2), 234-251.

Pop, M. D., Băcilă, M. F., Moisescu, O. I., & tîrca, A. M. (2008). The impact of educational experience on students’ satisfaction in the Romanian higher education system. International Journal of Business Research, 8(3), 188-194.

Price, I., Matzdorf, F., Smith, L., & Agahi, H. (2003). The impact of facilities on student choice of university. Facilities, 21(10), 212-222.

Psomas, E., & Antony, J. (2017). Total quality management elements and results in higher education institutions: The Greek case. Quality Assurance in Education, 25(2), 206-223.

Rafik, A., & Priyono, A. (2018). A new insight into alumni satisfaction model for Islamic higher education institutions (IHEI). Management Research Review, 41(12), 1411-1437.

Ryu, K., Lee, H.-R., & Gon Kim, W. (2012). The influence of the quality of the physical environment, food, and service on restaurant image, customer perceived value, customer satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 24(2), 200-223.

Schuler, M. (2004). Management of the Organizational Image: A Method for Organizational Image Configuration. Corporate Reputation Review, 7(1), 37-53.

Sharma, G. P., Verma, R. C., & Pathare, P. (2005). Mathematical modeling of infrared radiation thin layer drying of onion slices. Journal of Food Engineering, 71(3), 282–286.

Sica, C., & Ghisi, M. (2007). The Italian versions of the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II: Psychometric properties and discriminant power. In M.A. Lange (Ed.), Leading - Edge psychological tests and testing research (pp. 27-50). Nova.

Sirgy, M. J., & Samli, A. C. (1985). A path analytic model of store loyalty involving self-concept, store image, geographic loyalty, and socioeconomic status. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 13(3), 265-291.

Smith, G., Smith, A., & Clarke, A. (2007). Evaluating service quality in universities: a service department perspective. Quality Assurance in Education, 15(3), 334-351.

Subrahmanyam, A., & Raja Shekhar, B. (2017). Where do you find loyalty in the contemporary university scene? Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, 9(3), 378-393.

Sultan, P., & Wong, H. (2010). Performance-based service quality model: an empirical study on Japanese universities. Quality Assurance in Education, 18(2), 126-143.

Teeroovengadum, V., Nunkoo, R., Gronroos, C., Kamalanabhan, T. J., & Seebaluck, A. K. (2019). Higher education service quality, student satisfaction and loyalty: Validating the HESQUAL scale and testing an improved structural model. Quality Assurance in Education, 27(4), 427-445.

Teichler, U. (2007). Higher Education Systems (1st ed.). International Centre for Higher Education Research Kassel.

Weerasinghe, I. M. S., & Fernando, R. L. S. (2018). Critical factors affecting students' satisfaction with higher education in Sri Lanka. Quality Assurance in Education, 26(1), 115-130.

Wheaton, B., Muthen, B., Alwin, D. F., & Summers, G. F. (1977). Assessing Reliability and Stability in Panel Models. Sociological Methodology, 8(1), 84-136.

Wu, J.-H., & Wang, Y.-M. (2006). Measuring KMS success: A respecification of the DeLone and McLean’s model. Information & Management, 43(6), 728–739.

Yusoff, M., McLeay, F., & Woodruffe-Burton, H. (2015). Dimensions driving business student satisfaction in higher education. Quality Assurance in Education, 23(1), 86-104.

Zeithaml, V., Parasuraman, A., & Berry, L. L. (1990). Balancing customer perceptions and expectation (1st ed.). Free Press