Factors Impacting Satisfaction and Loyalty of Students: A Case Study of a Public University in Shanxi, China

Main Article Content

Hui Yao


Purpose: This study explores the influencing factors of student satisfaction and loyalty among students majoring in natural science at public universities in Shanxi Province. The framework proposes causal relationships among built environment, teaching care, university image, student trust, academic aspects, student satisfaction, and student loyalty. Research Design, Data, and Methods: Researchers used a quantitative method (n=500) to distribute questionnaires to students majoring in science and technology at the Taiyuan Institute of Technology. The researcher used purposive, stratified random and convenience sampling to collect the data. Before data collection, to ensure reliability and validity, the Item Objective Congruence (IOC) and Cronbach's alpha were used to test to ensure the validity of the content. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to analyze the data, including model fit, reliability, and validity tests. Results: The campus environment has a significant influence on teaching care. The school environment, teaching care, school image, student trust, and academic aspects significantly affect student satisfaction. Conclusion: Seven hypotheses have been proven to meet the research objectives. Therefore, school administrators should maintain a good school environment, improve academic performance, increase teaching care, and establish a good image of the school to enhance students’ satisfaction and loyalty.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Yao, H. (2023). Factors Impacting Satisfaction and Loyalty of Students: A Case Study of a Public University in Shanxi, China. AU-GSB E-JOURNAL, 16(1), 90-99. https://doi.org/10.14456/augsbejr.2023.10
Author Biography

Hui Yao

Department of Student Affairs Management, Taiyuan Institute of Technology, China.


Ali, F., Zhou, Y., Hussain, K., Nair, P. K., & Ragavan, N. A. (2016). Does higher education service quality effect student satisfaction, image, and loyalty. Quality Assurance in Education, 24(1), 70 -94.

Alves, H., & Raposo, M. (2010). The influence of university image on student behaviour. International Journal of Educational Management, 24(1), 73-85. https://doi.org/10.1108/09513541011013060

Arambewela, R., & Hall, J. (2009). An empirical model of international student satisfaction. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 21(4), 555-569. https://doi.org/10.1108/13555850910997599

Arpan, L. M., Raney, A. A., & Zivnuska, S. (2003). A cognitive approach to understanding university image. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 8(2), 97-113. https://doi.org/10.1108/1356328031047535

Bean, J. P., & Bradley, R. K. (1986). Untangling the Satisfaction-Performance Relationship for College Students. The Journal of Higher Education, 57(4), 393. https://doi.org/10.2307/1980994

Bean, J. P., & Metzner, B. S. (1985). A Conceptual Model of Nontraditional Undergraduate Student Attrition. Review of Educational Research, 55(4), 485-540. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543055004485

Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 238-246. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.238

Chadwich, K., & Ward, J. (1987). Determinants of Consumer Satisfaction with Education: Implications for College and University Administrators. College and University, 93(2), 236-246.

Chen, D. (2010). Construction and application of the evaluation index system of university image construction. Science and Technology, 11(2), 251-256.

Chen, Y.-C. (2017). The relationships between brand association, trust, commitment, and satisfaction of higher education institutions. International Journal of Educational Management, 31(7), 973-985. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijem-10-2016-0212

Clark, L., Haynes, B., Pinder, J., & Price, I. (2004). The Boundaries to Workplace Evaluation. Science Park, 12(1), 1-10.

Correa da Silva, M. B., Matte, J., & Bebber, S. (2021). Student satisfaction from the influence of the built environment, price fairness and teaching care: a study at a community-supported university. Price fairness and teaching care, 39(11/12), 703-721.

Dick, A. S., & Basu, K. (1994). Customer Loyalty: Toward an Integrated Conceptual Framework. Journal of Academy of Marketing Science, 22(2), 100. https://doi.org/10.1177/009207039422200

Doyle, W. R. (2012). The politics of public college tuition and state financial aid. The Journal of Higher Education, 83(5), 617-647. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221546.2012.11777260

Elliott, K., & Shin, D. (2002). Student satisfaction: an alternative approach to assessing this important concept. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 24(2), 97-109.

Farhan, B. Y. (2017). Examining competition in Ontario’s higher education market. Interchange, 48(1), 71-95. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10780-016-9278-6

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50. https://doi.org/10.2307/3151312

Global Times. (2022, May 17). China establishes world's largest higher education system with 240 million college graduates. https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202205/1265868.shtml

Hair, J. F., Babin, A., Money, A., & Samouel, P. (2003). Essentials of business research methods. John Wiley & Sons, 6(1), 11-20.

Hanssen, T.-E. S., & Solvoll, G. (2015). The importance of university facilities for student satisfaction at a Norwegian University. Facilities, 33(13/14), 744-759. https://doi.org/10.1108/f-11-2014-0081

Hong, Z. (2005). Probe into the trust between teachers and students in middle school education. Journal of ninjaing normal University, 20(1), 87-88.

Hopwood, C. J., & Donnellan, M. B. (2010). How should the internal structure of personality inventories be evaluated? Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14(3), 332–346. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868310361240

Hou, Y. (2016). University image communication: problems and solutions-research perspective based on new media environment. Global Outlook, 26(03),109-119.

Huddleston, T. J., & Karr, M. B. (1982). Assessing college image. College and University, 57(4), 364-370.

Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practices of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). The Guilford Press

Lamprecht, M. (2017). The Role of the Built Environment in Human Life. Selected Issues. European Spatial Research and Policy, 23(2), 65-81. https://doi.org/10.1515/esrp-2016-0011

Laurillard, D. (2013). Rethinking University Teaching: A Conversational Framework for the Effective Use of Learning Technologies (1st ed.). Routledge.

Li, Y., & Li, C. (2010). On the trust between teachers and students in ideological and political theory courses in colleges and universities. Journal of Sichuan Vocational and Technical College, 12(2),11-12.

Liu, J. (2003). On higher education Service Market. China Higher Education Research, 23(6),102-104.

Ma, W. (2005). Research on Quality Management of Higher Education Service. Shanghai Jiaotong University Press, 54(1), 1-10.

Mauss, I. B., & Robinson, M. D. (2009). Measures of emotion: A review. Cognition & Emotion, 23(2), 209-237. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930802204677

Milan, G., Silva, M., & Bebber, S. (2015). Analysis of Attributes and Dimensions of the Built Environment Quality from the Perspective of Employees from Furniture Companies. Brazilian Business Review, 12(2), 66-86. https://doi.org/10.15728/bbr.2015.12.2.4

Ming, X. (1999). Summary of the World Declaration on Higher Education. Research on Education Development, 3(1), 1-10.

Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill.

Orihuela, P., & Orihuela, J. (2014). Needs, Values and Post-occupancy Evaluation of Housing Project Customers: A Pragmatic View. Procedia Engineering, 85(2014), 412-419. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2014.10.567

Palacio, A., Meneses, G., & Perez, P. (2002). The configuration of the university image and its relationship with the satisfaction of students. Journal of Educational Administration, 40(5), 486-505.

Parahoo, S. K., Santally, M. I., Rajabalee, Y., & Harvey, H. L. (2016). Designing a predictive model of student satisfaction in online learning. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 26(1), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1080/08841241.2015.1083511

Petruzzellis, L. D., Uggento, A. M., & Romanazzi, S. (2006). Student satisfaction and quality of service in Italian universities. Managing Service Quality. An International Journal, 16(4), 349-364. https://doi.org/10.1108/09604520610675694

Pinder, J., Price, I., Wilkinson, S. J., & Demack, S. (2003). A method for evaluating workplace utility. Property Management, 21(4), 218-229. https://doi.org/10.1108/02637470310495009

Ren, Z. (2007). Maintenance and promotion of college students’ loyalty-an observation and reflection from the perspective of short-term non-degree education. Journal of Party School of Sichuan Provincial Party Committee, 2(1), 85-90.

Richard, E., & Adams, J. N. (2006). Assessing college student perceptions of instructor customer service via the Quality of Instructor Service to Students (QISS) Questionnaire. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 31(5), 535-549.

Rosenbaum, M. S., Friman, M., Ramirez, G. C., & Otterbring, T. (2020). Therapeutic services capes: restorative and relational resources in service settings. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 55(1), 102-108. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.jretconser.2020.102078.

Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2016). Research methods for business students (1st ed.). Pearson.

Shank, M. D. (1995). Walker, M., Hayes, T. Understanding Professional Service Expectation: Do We Know What Our Students Expect in a Quality Education. Journal of Professional Services Marketing, 13(1), 71-89.

Sharma, G. P., Verma, R. C., & Pathare, P. (2005). Mathematical modeling of infrared radiation thin layer drying of onion slices. Journal of Food Engineering, 71(3), 282–286.

Sica, C., & Ghisi, M. (2007). The Italian versions of the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II: Psychometric properties and discriminant power (1st ed.). In M. A. Lange (Ed.), Leading-edge psychological tests and testing research (pp. 27–50). Nova Science Publishers.

Song, Y. (2022). Factors Affecting Student Satisfaction and Loyalty: A Case Study of Xihua University. AU-GSB E-JOURNAL, 15(1), 174-184. https://doi.org/10.14456/augsbejr.2022.51

Sun, W. (2005). Research on the trust between teachers and students in university organizations. Guilin: Guangxi Normal University, 34(1), 1-10.

Thomas, S. (2011). What drives student loyalty in universities: An empirical model from India. International Business Research, 4(2),183.

Wang, H. (2016). Summary of Research on the Cultivation of Organizational Loyalty Literacy of Higher Vocational Students. Guangzhou Vocational Education Forum, 26(2), 60-64.

Wang, X., Zhao, J., Song, J., Wu, Y., Zhu, M., Li, Y., Cui, Y., Chen, L., Yang, J., & Liu, E. (2022). Homologous or heterologous booster of inactivated vaccine reduces SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant escape from neutralizing antibodies. Emerg Microbes Infect, 11(1), 477-481.

Weerasinghe, I., & Dedunu, H. (2017). University staff, image and students’ satisfaction in selected state universities, IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 19(5), 34-37.

Weerasinghe, S., Lalitha, R., & Fernando, R. L. S. (2018). Critical factors affecting students' satisfaction with higher education in Sri Lanka. Quality Assurance Education, 26(1), 115-130.

Wheaton, B., Muthen, B., Alwin, D. F., & Summers, G. (1997). Assessing Reliability and Stability in Panel. Sociological Methodology, 8(1), 84-136.

Wilson, H. K., & Cotgrave, A. J. (2020). Learning space design: the presentation of a framework for the built environment discipline. International Journal of Construction Education and Research. 16(2), 132-148. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/15578771.2020.1727067

Wu, J. H., & Wang, Y. M. (2006). Measuring KMS Success A Respecification of the DeLone and McLean's Model. Journal of Information & Management, 43(6), 728-739.

Yang, Q., Hong, T. C., & Zhi, L. Y. (2003). Chongqing University Students' Satisfaction Survey. Exploration, 23(1), 92-94.

Yu, Y. (2009). Research on the application of SERVQUAL in the quality management of postgraduate education services (1st ed.). East China Normal University.

Zhou, J., Hitt, M. A., & Shalley, C. E. (2015). The Oxford Handbook of Creativity, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship (1st ed.). Oxford library of psychology.