Main Article Content
Speaking in public is an essential skill in employment and is expected to be a skill that new graduates can perform. Many universities have included public speaking classes in a learning curriculum as a compulsory or elective course. Many learners feel they are not capable and are afraid of making a presentation in public, especially in English. This research aims to study the factors and look at solutions used to solve public speaking anxiety (PSA) problems, exploring learners’ attitudes between online and onsite presentation. This research also explores how the script affects PSA as the script has been considered as an important factor in various studies since there are not many details about these issues. A mixed methodology was applied in this research to gain in-depth information. The quantitative part was conducted through a questionnaire while the qualitative part was conducted through in-depth interviews and classroom observation. The participants were 57 Thai undergraduate students who had enrolled in a public speaking course.
Baccarani, C., & Bonfanti, A. (2015). Effective public speaking: A conceptual framework in the corporate-communication field. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 20(3), 375-390.
Campbell, S., & Larson, J. (2013). Public speaking anxiety: Comparing face-to-face and web-based speeches. Journal of Instructional Pedagogies, 10, 1-8.
Chen, L., & Zhan, H. (2020). Are students relying on scripts in their oral presentations online? International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning, 15(2), 126-146.
Clevenger, T., & Halvorson, S. K. (1992). Converting the PRCA-State version 2 to the speech anxiety scale. Tallahassee, TN: The Florida State University Press.
Cronbach, L. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychomerika,16, 297-334.
Foutz, B., Violanti, M., Kelly, S., & Prentiss, S. M. (2021). Teacher immediacy behaviors and students’ public speaking anxiety: More and less helpful than anticipated. Basic Communication Course Annual, 33(1), 257 - 287.
Gallego, A., McHugh, L., Villatte, M. & Lappalainen, R. (2020). Examining the relationship between public speaking anxiety, distress tolerance and psychological flexibility. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 16, 128-133.
Gürbüz, C., & Cabaroğlu, N. (2021). EFL students’ perceptions of oral presentations: Implications for motivation, language ability and speech anxiety. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 17(1), 600-614.
Hashemi, M. (2011). Language stress and anxiety among the English Language Learners. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 1181-1186.
Horwitz, E., Horwitz, M., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125-132.
Jalleh, C. M., Mahfoodh, O., & Singh, M. (2020). Oral communication apprehension among Japanese EFL international students in a language immersion program in Malaysia. International Journal of Instruction, 14(2), 155 - 178.
Kalra, R., & Siribud, S. (2020). Public speaking anxiety in the Thai EFL context. LEARN Journal, 13(1), 195-209.
Kankam, P. K., & Boateng, S. O. (2016). Addressing the problem of speech anxiety among students. International Journal of Public Leadership, 13(1), 26 - 39.
Karnchanachari, S. (2019). An investigation into learners’ willingness to communicate in English in the classroom: A study of Thai EFL students in the Thai and international programs. rEFLections, 26(2), 83-106.
Kelsen, B. A. (2019). Exploring public speaking anxiety and personal disposition in EFL presentations. Learning and Individual Differences, 73, 92-101.
Leary, M. (1983). A brief version of the fear of negative evaluation scale. SAGE Journal, 9(3), 371-375.
Leek, D. R., & Brown, C. J. (2019). Beyond information literacy: Rethinking approaches to the college public speaking curriculum. Advances in Librarianship, 46, 37 - 49.
Liu, T., Yang, Y., & Hong, Y. (2021). Raising students’ audience awareness for oral presentation through online role-reversal. System, 99, 1-13.
MacIntyre, P. (2014). How does anxiety affect second language learning? A reply to Sparks and Ganschow. The Modern Language Journal, 79(1), 90-99.
Madzlan, N. A., Seng, G. H., & Kesevan, H. V. (2020). Use of video blogs in alleviating public speaking anxiety among ESL Learners. Journal of Education and e-Learning Research, 7(1), 93-99.
Maxwell, J. A. (2013). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach. California, CA: Sage Publications Inc.
McCroskey, J. C. (1970). Measures of communication - bounds anxiety. The Speech Communication Association, 37(4), 269-277.
McCroskey, J. C. (1997). Oral communication apprehension: A summary of recent summary and research. Human Communication Research, 4(1), 75-96.
McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P. (1991). Quiet Children and the Classroom Teacher (2nd ed.). Annandale, VA: Speech Communication Association.
McNatt, B. D. (2019). Enhancing public speaking confidence, skills, and performance: An experiment of service-learning. The International Journal of Management Education, 17(2), 276 - 285.
Mehta, N. K. (2018). Enhancing engineers’ public speaking efficacy using appreciative inquiry. Emerald Publishing Limited, 50(2), 81 - 94.
Plangkham, B., & Porkaew, K. (2012). Anxiety in English public speaking classes among Thai EFL undergraduate students. LEARN Journal, 5(1), 110-119.
Pribyl, C., Keaten, J. A., Sakamoto, M., & Koshikawa, F. (2002). Assessing the cross‐cultural content validity of the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension scale (PRCA‐24). Japanese Psychological Research, 40(1), 47-53.
Rafada, S. H., & Madini, A. A. (2017). Major causes of Saudi learners' speaking anxiety in EFL classrooms. International Journal of English Language Education, 5(1), 54 -71.
Rovinelli, R.J. and Hambleton, R.K. (1977). On the use of content specialists in the assessment of criterion-referenced test item validity. Vereniging Voor Onderwijs Research, 2, 49-60.
Tantiwich, K., & Sinwongsuwat, K. (2021). Thai university students’ problems of language use in English conversation. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 14(2), 599-626.
Tee, X. T., Joanna, T.A., & Kamarulzaman, W. (2020). A systematic review of Self-Coping strategies used by university students to cope with public speaking anxiety. Canadian Center of Science and Education, 13(10), 57-73.
Tsang, A. (2020). The relationship between tertiary-level students’ self-perceived presentation delivery and public speaking anxiety: A mixed-methods study. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 45(7), 1060-1072.
Whitworth, R. H., & Cochran, C. (2009). Evaluation of integrated versus unitary treatments for reducing public speaking anxiety. Communication Education, 45(4), 306-314.
Wiboonwachara, L. (2019). Effects of question-based activities on critical thinking of 2nd year English major students. The New English Teacher, 13(2), 12-23.
Widhayant, Z. (2018). English department students’ learning strategies to overcome speaking anxiety. Universitas Negeri Surabaya, 6(2), 60-67.
Yaikhong, K., & Usaha, S. (2012). A measure of EFL public speaking class anxiety: Scale development and preliminary validation and reliability. English Language Teaching, 5(12), 23-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/elt.v5n12p23