The Lexical Profile of Laboratory Animal Science Review Articles: The Uses of Collocations and Purposive Writing Patterns
Keywords:collocation, corpus-based study, laboratory animal, Outside Words List (OWL), purposive function,
The corpus studies of words and concordance lines in various fields were widely investigated, but there were few studies examined on the collocations and purposive sentences in the field of laboratory science. Such rare studies can make ESP learners, science and technology students in particular, more aware of the significance of learning collocations and language patterns for effective academic writing. Thus, the current study aims 1) to investigate the grammatical and lexical collocations occurring in the content words of the Outside Word List (OWL) and 2) to analyze the patterns used to state the purposes of the study in laboratory animal science review articles. There were 555,526 running words in the 100 research articles of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR) journal between 2010 and 2014. AntConc (3.4.4) was used to count word frequency and create a laboratory animal science wordlist. Then the concordance lines for the highest-frequency words were analyzed to find grammatical and lexical collocations and the purposive function. The data were analyzed and displayed as percentages and frequencies. The results showed that most lexical collocations appeared in the following four patterns: noun + noun (55.81%), noun + verb (17.83%), adjective + noun (14.15%), and verb + noun (7%). Grammatical collocations were found only in the pattern of noun + noun (4.26%). The results demonstrated that purposive sentences used a main verb with to-infinitive to express the objectives of the study. The implications of the study are beneficial for students and novice researchers in writing development and more contribute to teaching and learning pedagogy in ESP course design. The results are advisable for ESP teachers, especially teachers in English for Science and Technology and Academic Writing classes, to integrate a lesson concerning collocations and language patterns into their courses in order to teach students how to write professionally in scholarly contexts.
Ackermann, K., & Chen, Y. (2013). Developing the academic collocation list (ACL) – A corpus-driven and expert-judged approach. English For Academic Purposes, 12(4).
Anthony, L. (2014). AntConc (Version 3.4.3) [Computer Software]. Tokyo, Japan: Waseda University. Available from http://www.laurenceanthony.net
Belcher, D., Johns, A., & Paltridge, B. (2011). New directions in English for Specific Purposes Research. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Benson, M. (1985). Collocations and idioms. In R. IIson (Ed.), Dictionaries, lexicography and language learning. British Council: Pergamon Press.
Bhatia, V., & Bremner, S. (2012). English for business communication. Language Teaching, 45(04), 410-445.
Breen, M. (1985). Authenticity in the language classroom. Applied Linguistics, 6(1), 60-68.
Bromley, K. (2007). Nine things every teacher should know about words and vocabulary instruction. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 50, 528-536.
Buakaew (2015). A study of collocation usage in food and beverage advertisements. Panyapiwat Journal, 7(2), 232-244.
Cosby, G.A. (1987). Does a scientist need foreign languages?. Foreign Language Annals, 20(2), 181-183.
Coxhead, A. (2000) A new academic word list, TESOL Quarterly, 34(2), 213-238.
Crim, M., & Riley, L. (2012). Viral diseases in zebrafish: What is known and unknown. ILAR Journal, 53(2), 135-143.
Diniz, L. (2005). Comparative review: TextSTAT 2.5, AntConc 3.0 and Compleat Lexical Tutor 4.0. Language Learning and Technology, 9(3), 22-24.
Fries, C. (1952). The structure of English. New York: Harcourt Brace.
Froehlich, H. (2015). Corpus analysis with Antconc. Programming Historian. Retrieved from http://programminghistorian.org/ lessons/corpus-analysis-with-antconc.html
Hornby, A. S., & Wehmeier, S. (2005). Oxford’s advanced learner’s dictionary of current English (7th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kent, M., Harper, C., & Wolf, J. (2012). Documented and potential research impacts of subclinical diseases in zebrafish. ILAR Journal, 53(2), 126-134.
Lawrence, C., & Mason, T. (2012). Zebrafish Housing Systems: A Review of Basic Operating Principles and Considerations for Design and Functionality. ILAR Journal, 53(2), 179-191.
Martínez, I., Beck, S., & Panza, C. (2009). Academic vocabulary in agriculture research articles: A corpus-based study. English For Specific Purposes, 28(3), 183-198.
Matthews, M., & Varga, Z. (2012). Anesthesia and euthanasia in zebrafish. ILAR Journal, 53(2), 192-204.
Montgomery, S. & Crystal, D. (2013). Does science need a global language? English and the future of research. Chicago: University Press.
Nasiadka, A., & Clark, M. (2012). Zebrafish breeding in the laboratory environment. ILAR Journal, 53(2), 161-168.
Nation, P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Otte, J. (2006). Real language to real people: A descriptive and exploratory case study of the outcomes of aural authentic texts on the listening comprehension of adult ESL students enrolled in an advanced ESL listening course. Dissertation Abstracts International, 67(4), 12-46.
Paltridge, B., & Starfield, S. (2011). Research in English for Specific Purposes. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning (Vol. 2), (pp. 106-121). New York: Routledge.
Panjanon, V. & Soranastaporn, S. (2016). A corpus-based study on high-frequency content words and collocations in the Outside Word List (OWL) in laboratory animal research articles. NIDA Journal of Language and Communication, 21(29), 1-20.
Qian, D. (2005). Measuring lexical richness in business English writing: A study of Chinese learners. The Hong Kong Linguist: Jubilee Version, 25, 36-42.
Sanders, J., Watral, V., & Kent, M. (2012). Microsporidiosis in zebrafish research facilities. ILAR Journal, 53(2), 106-113.
SCImago. (n.d.). ILAR Journal. SJR — SCImago Journal & Country Rank. Retrieved June 21, 2015, from https://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=22007&tip=sid&clean=0
Soranastaporn, S. (2013). Effective reading &writing English texts. Bangkok: Wang Aksorn Press.
Spitsbergen, J., Buhler, D., & Peterson, T. (2012). Neoplasia and neoplasm-associated lesions in laboratory colonies of zebrafish emphasizing key influences of diet and aquaculture system design. ILAR Journal, 53(2), 114-125.
Staples, S. (2015). Examining the linguistic needs of internationally educated nurses: A corpus-based study of lexico-grammatical features in nurse–patient interactions. English for Specific Purposes, 37, 122-136.
Swales, J. (2005). Genre analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Swales, J. & Feak, C. (2012). Academic writing for graduate students (3rd ed.). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Tampanich, S., & Soranasataporn, S. (2018). Word Frequency and Sentence Structure in Stating Objectives in Review Articles: Useful Findings for EFL learners and Novice Researchers. KKU International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 8(1), 91.
Tribble, C. (2012). Teaching and language corpora: Quo vadis?. In L. Anthony. (2013). A critical look at software tools in corpus linguistics. Linguistic Research 30(2), 141-161.
Trimble, L. (1985). English for science and technology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ulrich, A. (1996). The European union status change of English during the last fifty years. In J. Fishman, et.al. (Eds.), Post-imperial English: Status change in former British and American colonies, 1940-1990 (p.241-267). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Valipouri, L., & Nassaji, H. (2013). A corpus-based study of academic vocabulary in chemistry research articles. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 12(4), 248-263.
West, M. (1953). A general service list of English words. London: Longman, Green.
Whipps, C., Lieggi, C., & Wagner, R. (2012). Mycobacteriosis in zebrafish colonies. ILAR Journal, 53(2), 95-105.
Wong, V. (1995). The use of authentic materials at tertiary level. ELT Journal, 49(4), 318-322.
Wood, A. (2001). International scientific English: The language of research scientists. In J. Flowerdew & M. Peacock (Eds.), Research perspectives on English for academic Purposes (pp. 71-83). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.