Psychological Stress in Thai Mothers of Children with Cognitive Disabilities: The Predictors and Consequences of Coping Strategies and Perceived Controllability
Keywords:Maternal stress, coping strategies, children’s behavioral problems and controllability
The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of personal and environmental factors on maternal stress, being mediating by perceived controllability to cope with emotion and problems of life situations, on Thai mothers of children with cognitive disabilities. Total sample of participants was 800 Thai mothers, in Thailand. Data for the research were collected using a questionnaire that consisted of the following standardized scales, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situation (for problem & emotion) focused coping (CISS), Locus of Control Scale (LOC), Self- Compassion (SC), Self – Efficacy (SE), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Child Behavioral Scale (CBS), and Controllability Scale (CAS). In order to meet the objective of this study, an indirect model was designed and conducted via structural equation modeling (SEM), employed to measure the three nested (direct, indirect and full path) models. Evaluation and comparison of the fit of these three nested models posited to the full path models were more parsimonious and better fitting than the others path models. The results revealed that children’s behavioral problems directly, self- compassion, self- efficacy direct and indirectly, social support, indirectly affected to maternal stress by mediating perceived controllability and coping strategies.
Adam, E. K., & Chase-Lansdale, P. L. (2002). Illume sweet home(s): Parental separations, residential moves, and adjustment in low-income adolescent girls. Develf. Pmental Psychology. 38, 792- 805.
Abidin, R. R. (1995). Parenting Stress Index. (3rd ed). Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources.
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
Baker, B. (2003). Pre- school children with and without developmental delay: Behavior problems and parenting stress over time. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47 (Pt 4-5), 217- 230.
Baker, B. L., Blacher, J., Crnic, K. A., & Edelbrock, C. (2002). Behavior problems and parenting stress in families of three-year-old children with and without developmental delays. Journal on Mental Retardation, 107(6), 433-444.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215.
Bandura, A. (I997). Self f-efficacy. Harvard Mental Health letter, 13(9), 4-6. Bandura, A. (I997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W H Freeman. Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 1 Englevood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Bandura, A. (I997). Self f-efficacy. Harvard Mental Health letter, 13(9), 4-6. Bandura, A. (I997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W H Freeman.
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology,52,1-26
Cohen, T. (2012). The invisible disability: Perceptions and potentials of children with autism in Kisumu, Kenya. (Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection, Paper 1245). Retrieved from http://digitalcollections.sit.edu/isp-collection/1245
Cohen, S., & McKay, G. (1984). Social support, stress, and the buffering hypothesis: A theoretical analysis. In A. Baum, J. E. Singer, & S. E. Taylor (Eds.), Handbook of psychology and health (Vol. 4, pp. 253 – 267). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associated, Inc.
Cohen, S., & Herbert, T. B. (1996). Health psychology: psychological factors and physical disease from the perspective of human psychoneuroimmunology. Annual Review of Psychology, 47, 113–142.
Coleman, P.K., & Karraker, K.H. (1998). Self-efficacy and parenting quality: Findings and future applications. Developmental Review, 18, 47-85.
Endler, N. S., & Parker, J. D. A. (1 990). Stress and anxiety: Conceptual and assessment Issues. Stress Medicine, 6(3), 243-248.
Epstein, M. H., Cullinan, D., & Neiminen, G. (1984). Social Behavior Problems of Learning Disabled and Normal Girls. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 17(10), 609-611.
Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R S, (1988). Ways of Coping Questionnaire Research edition. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1985). If it changes it must be a process: Study of emotion and coping during three stages of a college examination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48(1), 150-170.
Guajardo, N. R., Snyder, G., & Petersen, R. (2009). Relationships among parenting practices, parental stress, child behavior, and children’s social-cognitive development. Infant & Child Development, 18(1), 37-60.
Ho, R. (2014). Handbook of univariate and multivariate data analysis with IBM SPSS (2nd ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Jackson, D. L. (2003). Revisiting sample size and number of parameter estimates: some support for the N: hypothesis. Structural Equation Modeling, 10(1), 128-141.
Kleinman, A. (1991). Rethinking psychiatry: From cultural category to personal experience. New York: The Free Press.
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Coping and adaptation. In W. D. Gentry (Ed.), Handbook of behavioral medicine (pp. 282–325). New York: Guilford.
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springe
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S, (1986). Cognitive theories of stress and the issue of circularity. In Appley M.H., & Trumbull R. (eds.), Dynamics of Stress: The Plenum Series on Stress and Coping. Boston, MA: Springer.
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1987). Transactional theory and research on emotions and coping. European Journal of Personality, 1(3), 141-169.
Lazarus, R. S. (1993). Coping theory and research: Past, present, and future. Psychosomatic Medicine, 55(3), 234-247.
Mummery, K.W. (2010). The Role of Coping Style, Social Support, and self-efficacy in resilience of sport performance. Athletic Insight the online journal of sport psychology. 3: 187-199
Miller, S. M. (1992). Individual differences in the coping process: what to know and when to know it. In B. N. Carpenter (Ed.), Personal coping: theory, research, and application. Westport, CN: Praeger.
McDonald, (2005). Children at risk for early academic problems: Role of learning related social skills. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 15(3), 307–329.
Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O. (2013). Mplus user’s guide. Los Angeles: Muthen &Muthen.
Nashchen, J. S., Woodford, L., & Minnes, P. (2003). The Family Stress and Coping Interview for families of individuals with developmental disabilities: A lifespan perspective on Family adjustment. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47(4/5), 285-290.
Neff, K. D., & McGehee, P. (2010). Self-compassion and psychological resilience among adolescents and young adults. Self and Identity, 9(3), 225-240.
Neff, K. D., (2003). The development and validation of a scale to measure self – compassion, Self and Identity, 2(3), 223-250.
Neff, K. D. (2003). Self-compassion: An alternative conceptualization of a healthy attitude
Neff, K. D., (2009). Self-compassion, In M. R. Leary & R. H. Hoyle (Eds.), Handbook of individual differences in social behavior (pp. 561-573). New York: Guildford Press.
Neff, K. D. (2011). Self‐compassion, self‐esteem, and well‐being. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 5(1), 1-12.
Neff, K. D. (2016). The self-compassion scale is a valid and theoretically coherent measure of self-compassion. Mindfulness, 7(1), 264-274.
Persoon, A. (2010). Development and validation of the Nurse Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities - NOSCA (Doctoral thesis, Radbound University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands). Evidence Level IV. Last updated - July 2012
Pommier, E. A., (2010). The Compassion scale (published doctoral dissertation). Texas: The University of Texas.
Rimmerman, A. (1991). Mothers of children with severe mental retardation: Maternal pessimism, locus of control and perceived social support. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 14(1), 65-68.
Rotter, J. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 80(1), 1-28.
Rotter, J. B. (1982). The development and application of social learning theory. New York: Praeger.
Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnston (Eds.), Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs (pp. 35-37). Windsor: NFER-NELSON.
Seligman, M. (2007). What you could change & what you couldn’t. New York: Knopf.
Seligman, M., & Darling, R. B. (1997). Ordinary families, special children (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Skelton, H., &Rosenbaum, P. (2010). Disability and development: Integrating the concepts. Hamilton: Could Child Centre for Childhood Disability Research.
Thurber, C. A., & Weisz, J. R. (1997). You could try or you could just give up: The impact of perceived control and coping style on childhood homesickness. Developmental Psychology, 33(3), 508-517.
Tailor, (2004). Comparison of Anxiety, Depression and Stress in Couples with Mentally Retarded Children and Normal Children Couples. Marvdasht: Islamic Azad University,
Yamashita, K., Saito, M., & Takao, T. (2012). Stress and coping styles in Japanese nursing students. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 18(5), 489-496.
Zeidner & N. S. Endler (Eds.), Handbook of coping: Theory, research, applications (pp. 107-132). Oxford: J. Wiley.
Zakowski, S., Hall, M., Klein, L., & Baum, A. (2001). Appraised control coping, and stress in a community sample: a test of the goodness-of-fit hypothesis. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 23(3), 158-165.
Zeidner, M., & Endler, N. S. (Eds.). (1996). Handbook of Coping: Theory, Research, Applications. New York: Wiley.
Zimet, G. D., Dahlem, N. W., Zimet, S. G., & Farley, G. K. (1988). The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52(1), 30 41.