The Influence of Self-Concept on Resilience Being Mediated by Self-Compassion and Compassion for Others Among Thai Adolescents


  • Miho Katsumata Assumption University Thailand
  • Santhosh Ayathupady Mohanan Assumption University Thailand


Self-concept, Resilience, Self-compassion, Compassion for others, Thai adolescents


This investigation attempted to examine the influence of selfconcept on resilience being mediated by self-compassion and compassion for others among Thai adolescents. Study I was conducted to translate into Thai language and test the construct validity and reliability of the following research instruments: Adolescents’ Self-Concept Short Scale (ASCSS), Child & Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM), Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), and Compassionate Love for Humanity Scale (CLHS). Data for Study I were collected from 500 Thai adolescents in the Bangkok area. Study II tested for the best-fit model of the causal relationship between self-concept and resilience, being mediated by the factors of self-compassion and compassion for others. Data for Study II were collected from 503 Thai adolescents in the Bangkok area. A self-administered survey questionnaire in Thai was employed for data collection which consisted of the following parts: a researcher-constructed set of questions to elicit demographic information, the ASCSS to measure the level of positive self-concept, the CYRM to measure the level of resilience, the SCS to measure the level of self-compassion, and the CLHS to measure the level of compassion for others. The results of Study I confirmed that ten items from the ASCSS, eight items from the CYRM, and two items from the CLHS should be eliminated. In terms of component, the original scale of ASCSS was consisted of six dimensions while in this study, five dimensions were established. The original scale of CYRM consists of three subscales, however, in this study, six components were identified. For the SCS, the original scale consisted of six dimensions, whereas this study identified three dimensions. For the last scale CLHS, the scale was presented to measure a single, underlying factor. Nevertheless, in this study, four components were identified. After the EFA, the results of study I demonstrated that the Thai versions of the ASCSS, CYRM, SCS, and CLHS are psychometrically sound and, therefore, reliable and valid for use with Thai participants. In Study II, the fully identified path model demonstrated that selfconcept has positive influence on the participants’ reported level of resilience, being mediated by self-compassion, however, the results indicated that the factor of compassion for others does not function as the mediator of the two causal relationship between self-concept and resilience for this particular population of this study. 


Blunch, N. J. (2008). Introduction to structural equation modelling using SPSS and AMOS. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.

Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-translation for the cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Research, 1(3), 185–216.

Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K.A.Bollen & J .S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 445-455). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Chinnawong, T. (2007). The influences of Thai Buddhist culture on cultivating compassionate relationships with equanimity between nurses, patients, and relatives: A grounded theory approach (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Southern Cross University, Lismore, New South Wales, Australia.

Dunlap, D., & Vorapanya, S. (2014). Buddhist ideology towards children with disabilities in Thailand: Through the lens of inclusive school principals. Paper presented at The 11th UNDV 2014 International Buddhist Conference, Vietnam.

Friedli, L. (2009). Mental health, resilience, and inequalities. Paper prepared for the WHO Regional Office for Europe. Retrieved from _data/assets/pdf_file/0012/100821/E92227.pdf

Goldhagen, B. E., Kingsolver, K., Stinnett, S. S., & Rosdahl, J. A. (2015). Stress and burnout in residents: Impact of mindfulness-based resilience training. Advances in Medical Education and Practice, 6, 525–532. Hair, J., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R., & Black, W. (1997). Multivariate data analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall

Hall, K. (2010). Compendium of Selected Resilience and Related Measures for Children and Youth. Tronto: The Child & FamHughes, C. (2011). A cross-cultural study of career maturity in Australia and Thailand (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia. ily Partnership.

Harkness, S., & Keefer, C. H. (2000). Contributions of cross-cultural psychology to research and interventions in education and health. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31(1), 92–109.

Ho, R. (2006). Handbook of univariate and multivariate data analysis and interpretation with SPSS. Boca Raton, Florida: Chapman & Hall/CRC.

Huitt, W. (2011). Self and self-views. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from Kaiser, H.F. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39, 31-36.

Kalff, M. (1983). The negation of ego in Tibetan Buddhism and Jungian psychology. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 15(2), 103–124.

Kawai, H. (1967). Yung shinrigaku nyumon [Introduction to Jungian psychology]. Tokyo: Baifukan. Klimecki, O. M., Leiberg, S., Lamm, C., & Singer, T. (2013). Functional neural plasticity and associated changes in positive affect after compassion training. Cerebral Cortex, 23, 1552–1561. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhs142 Klimecki, O. M., Leiberg, S., Ricard, M., & Singer, T.

Mejia, X. E. (2004). An investigation of the impact of sandplay therapy on mental health status and resiliency attitudes in Mexican farmworker women (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA.

Ministry of Education. (2016). Cho Hae Municipality revives the project "School Psychologist" after a two-year pilot resolves children. Retrieved from

Neff, K. D. (2003a). Development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self and Identity, 2, 223–250.

Neff, K. D. (2003b). Self-compassion: An alternative conceptualization of a healthy attitude towards oneself. Self and Identity, 2, 85–102.

Neff, K. D. (2008). Self-compassion: Moving beyond the pitfalls of a separate self-concept. In J. Bauer & H. A. Wayment (Eds.), Transcending self-interest: Psychological explorations of the quiet ego (pp. 95–105). Washington DC: APA Books.

Neff, K. D. (2017). Self-compassion. What is self-compassion? Retrieved May, 2017 from

Neff, K. D., Pisitsungkagarn, K., & Hseih, Y. (2008). Self-compassion and self-construal in the United States, Thailand, and Taiwan. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 39, 267–285.

Neff, K. D., & Seppala, E. (2016). Compassion, well-being, and the hypo-egoic self. In K. W. Brown & M. Leary (Eds.), Oxford handbook of hypo-egoic phenomena: Theory and research on the quiet ego (pp. 189–202). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc.

Overgaauw S, Rieffe C, Broekhof E, Crone EA and Güroglu B (2017). Assessing Empathy across Childhood and Adolescence: Validation of the Empathy Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (EmQue-CA). Front. Psychol. 8:870. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00870 Piers, E. V., & Herzberg, D. S. (2002). Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale Manual (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services (WPS).

Pisitsungkagarn, K., Taephant, N., & Attasaranya, P. (2013). Body image satisfaction and self-esteem in Thai female adolescents: The moderating role of self-compassion. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 1(6). doi: 10.1515/ ijamh-2013-0307

Pommier, E. A. (2010). The Compassion Scale (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The University of Texas, Austin, Texas, USA.

Samuels, A., Shorter, B., & Plaut, F. (1986). A critical dictionary of Jungian analysis. New York: Routledge.

Sigelman, C. K., & Rider, E. A. (2009). Life-span human development. Stamford, CT: Wadsworth Publishing.

Snyder, C. R., Lopez, S. J., & Pedrotti, J. T. (2011). Positive psychology: Scientific and practical exploration of human strengths. CA: Sage.

Sprecher, S., & Fehr, B. (2005a). Compassionate love for close others and humanity. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 22, 629–651.

Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (1996). The posttraumatic growth inventory: Measuring the positive legacy of trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9, 455–471.

Trompetter, H. R., de Kleine, E., & Bohlmeijer, E. T. (2016). Why does positive mental health buffer against psychopathology? An exploratory study on self-compassion as a resilience mechanism and adaptive emotion regulation strategy. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1(10). doi: 10.1007/s10608-016-9774-0

Ungar, M. (2008). Resilience across cultures. British Journal of Social Work, 38(2), 218–235.

Ungar, M., & Liebenberg, L. (2009). Cross-cultural consultation leading to the development of a valid measure of youth resilience: The international resilience project. Studia Psychologica, 51(2-3), 259–268.

Walsh, W. B., & Betz, N. E. (1985). Tests and assessment. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentic Hall, Inc.

World Health Organization [WHO]. (2014). mental health: A state of well-being. Retrieved from

World Health Organization [WHO]. (2017). Adolescents: Health Risks and Solutions Fact Sheet. Retrieved from

Wylie, R. C. (1979). The self-concept: Theory and research on selected topic. Lincoln, NE and London: University of Nebraska Press.

Young-Eisendrath, P. (1989). Jung and Buddhism: Refining the dialogue. In P. Young-Eisendrath & T. Dawson (Eds.), The Cambridge companion to Jung (pp. 235–252). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Zimmerman, N. M. (2000). Self-concept, resiliency, and identity factors among gay and lesbian individuals: A review and critique of the literature (Unpublished master’s thesis). The Graduate College University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, WI, USA.




How to Cite

Katsumata, M., & Mohanan, S. A. (2020). The Influence of Self-Concept on Resilience Being Mediated by Self-Compassion and Compassion for Others Among Thai Adolescents. Scholar: Human Sciences, 12(1), 20. Retrieved from

Most read articles by the same author(s)