Validation of the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (Cd-Risc) as Applied within the Thai Context


  • Kirsten McGillivray M.S. Candidate in Counseling Psychology, Graduate School of Psychology, Assumption University, Thailand
  • Robert Ho PhD., Associate Professor, Graduate School of Education and Psychology, Assumption University, Thailand.


Resilience, Assessment, Cross-validation, Anxiety, Depression, Stress, Thailand.


This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Thai version of the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), a 25-item self-report questionnaire developed to measure resilience. This was achieved by testing the factor structure of the CD-RISC when applied to a non-clinical sample of Thai adults. Exploratory factor analysis identified three resilience factors: personal competence/tolerance of negative affect; support resources; and self-efficacy. Reliability analysis identified a number of items that were not internally consistent and these were deleted from the scale. The final Thai version of the CD-RISC consisted of 18 items, which is shorter than the original 25-item scale. The scale's convergent validity was tested by assessing the scale's relationship with three states of negative affect – depression, anxiety, stress – as measured by the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Correlation analysis revealed that the three extracted resilience factors of personal competence/tolerance of negative affect; support resources; and self-efficacy are significantly and negatively correlated with the DASS-21 factors of depression, anxiety, and stress. The utility of the CD-RISC as applied within the Thai context is discussed.