Measuring College Students’ Entrepreneurship Intention and Behavior In Zhejiang, China

Main Article Content

Yi Qian


Purpose: This research investigates factors impacting college students’ entrepreneurship intention and behavior in Hangzhou, Ningbo, and Wenzhou in Zhejiang Province. The conceptual framework arranged the proposed causal relationship among attitude toward being an entrepreneur, subject norms for being an entrepreneur, entrepreneurial training & development, entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial motivation, entrepreneurial intention and entrepreneurship behavior. Research design, data, and methodology: The researcher applied the quantitative method (n=500), distributing the survey to college students in the three cities. Judgmental sampling is to select three cities and quota sampling in dividing participants’ grades. Additionally, this study used a convenience sampling method to collect the data with an online survey. The researcher used structural equation and model (SEM) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to analyze the data, which include reliability, construct validity, and model fit. Results: The result of this study showed that attitude toward being an entrepreneurial intention, subject norms for being an entrepreneur, entrepreneurial training & development, entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurship motivation, and entrepreneurial intention significantly impact college students’ entrepreneurship behavior. Conclusions: Colleges are suggested to provide more training, education, and opportunities for students to realize the importance of entrepreneurship; the rate of entrepreneurship will increase while it helps employment growth.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Qian, Y. (2024). Measuring College Students’ Entrepreneurship Intention and Behavior In Zhejiang, China. AU-GSB E-JOURNAL, 17(1), 202-212.
Author Biography

Yi Qian

Ningbo Polytechnic, Zhejiang, China.


Aamir, H., Imran, A., Imran, S. K. M. B. I., & Syed, A. H. (2021). Individual entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intention: The mediating role of entrepreneurial motivations. Industry & Higher Education, 1(2), 1-16.

Adewale, A. A., & Fatima, I. (2016). Entrepreneurship intention among students. The antecedent role of culture and entrepreneurship training and Development. The International Journal of Management Education, 14, 116-132

Ahmed, T., Chandran, V. G. R., & Klobas, J. (2017). Specialized entrepreneurship education: does it really matter? Fresh evidence from Pakistan. International Journal of Entrepreneurship Behavior & Research, 23(1), 4-19.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211.

Almobaireek, W. N., & Manolova, T. S. (2012). Who wants to be an entrepreneur? Entrepreneurial intentions among Saudi university students. African Journal of Business Management, 6(11), 4029-4040.

Alvarez, R. D., DeNoble, A. F., & Jung, D. (2006). Educational curricula and self-efficacy: entrepreneurial orientation and new venture intentions among university students in Mexico. Developmental Entrepreneurship: Adversity, Risk, and Isolation, Emerald Group Publishing, 5, 379-403.

Anderson, A. R., & Zhang, X. (2015). Enterprise education with Chinese characteristics; Policy, practices, and uneven development in PRC. Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, 7(3), 276–292.

Aslam, T. M., Awan, A. S., & Khan, T. M. (2012). Entrepreneurial intentions among university students of Punjab, a province of Pakistan. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2(14), 114-120.

Bahadur, A. A., & Naimatullah, S. (2015). Developing attitudes and intentions among potential entrepreneurs. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 28(2), 547-567.

Bandura, A., Adams, N. E., Hardy, A. B., & Howells, G. N. (1980). Tests of the generality of self-efficacy theory. Cognitive Theory and Research, 4(1), 39-66.

Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative Fit Indexes in Structural Models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238-246.

Bird, B. (1988). Implementing entrepreneurial ideas: the case of intentions. Academy of Management ReviEw, 13(3), 442-454.

Bramesada, P., Fierk, H., & Esther, V. (2021). The role of perceived value of entrepreneurial identity in growth motivation, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 27(4), 989-1010.

Byabashaija, W., & Katono, I. (2011). The impact of college entrepreneurial education on entrepreneurial attitudes and intention to start a business in Uganda. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 16(1), 127-144.

Carlson, S. D. (1985). Consistency of attitude components: A new approach for all problems. Dissertation Abstract International, 46(9), 32-61.

Cui, L., Wu, Y., Liu, J., Yang, S., & Zhange, Y. (2021). Template-Based Named Entity Recognition Using BART. Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 1(2), 1835-1845.

Cunningham, J. A., & Menter, M. (2021). Transformative change in higher education: Entrepreneurial universities and high-technology entrepreneurship. Industry & Innovation, 28(3), 343–364.

Dong, T. (2020). Reflections on the sustainable development of innovation & entrepreneurship education in colleges. Jiangsu Higher Education, 10, 93–96. https://doi. org/10.13236/j.cnki.jshe.2020.10.016

Dyer, W. G., & Handler, W. (1994). Entrepreneurship and family business: Exploring the connections. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 19(1), 71-71.

Fayolle, A., Gailly, B., & Lassas-Clerc, N. (2006). Assessing the impact of entrepreneurship education programs: a new methodology. Journal of European Industrial Training, 30(9), 701-720.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation model with unobservable variables and measurement error algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 382-389.

Garavan, T. N., & O’Cinneide, B. (2004). Entrepreneurship education and training programs: a review and evaluation -Part 1, Journal of European Industrial Training, 8(8), 3-12.

GEM. (2001). The global entrepreneurship monitors.

Gerba, D. T. (2012). Impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intentions of business and engineering students in Ethiopia. African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, 3(2), 258-277.

Ghada, H., Gloria, H., & Gautam, N. (2021). Can students’ perception of the diverse learning environment affect their intentions toward entrepreneurship? Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 6(3), 167-176.

Guerrero, M., Rialp, J., & Urbano, D. (2008). The impact of desirability and feasibility on entrepreneurial intentions: A structural equation model. The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 4(1), 35-50.

Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., Anderson, R., & Tatham, R. (2006). Multivariate Data Analysis (6th ed.). Pearson Prentice Hall.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis (7th ed.). Pearson.

Hao, J., Wu, A., & Hou, Y. (2016). The construction and enlightenment of American innovation and entrepreneurship education system. Research in Higher Education of Engineering, 4(20), 65-70.

Hellriegel, D. J., Slocum, J., Staude, G. A., Klopper, H. P., Louw, L., & Oesthuizen, T. (2008). Management (2nd ed.). South African, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Henry, C., Hill, F., & Leitch, C. (2005). Entrepreneurship education and training: can entrepreneurship be taught? Part II. Education þ Training, 47(3), 158-169.

Hopwood, C. J., & Donnellan, M. B. (2010). How should the internal structure of personality inventories be evaluated? Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14(3), 332–346.

Iakovleva, T., Kolvereid, L., & Stephan, U. (2011). Entrepreneurial intentions in developing and developed countries. Education + Training, 53(5), 353-370.

Innocent, O., Kadiri, U., & Yakubu, A. (2019). The effects of entrepreneurship education on students’ entrepreneurial intentions A longitudinal approach. Education + Training. ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)

Izquierdo, E., & Buelens, M. (2008). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions: the influence of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and attitudes (3rd nd.). In Presentado en Internationalizing Entrepreneurship Education and Training IntEnt 2008 Conference.

Jena, R. K. (2020). Measuring the impact of business management Student’s attitude towards entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intention: A case study. Computers in Human Behavior 107, 106275

Jones, C., & English, J. (2004). A contemporary approach to entrepreneurship education. Education + Training, 46(8/9), 416-423.

Katz, J., & Gartner, W. B. (1988). Properties of emerging organizations. Academy of Management Review, 13(3), 429–441.

Kautonen, T., Van Gelderen, M., & Tornikoski, E. T. (2013). Predicting entrepreneurial behaviour: a test of the theory of planned behaviour. Applied Economics, 45(6), 697-707.

Kinwolo, A. K., Saina, C. K., & Cheserek, G. J. (2012). Effects of credit training skills on sales performance among women entrepreneurs in Elgeiyo Marakwet County, Kenya. Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences, 3(6), 945-950.

Kolvereid, L. (1996). Organizational employment versus self-employment: reasons for career choice intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 20(3), 23-31.

Kriz, A. (2010). The challenge to rekindle China’s innovative spirit. Management Decision, 48(4), 541–561.

Krueger, N., & Brazeal, D. V. (1994). Entrepreneurial potential and potential entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 1(3), 91-104.

Krueger, N. F., & Carsrud, A. L. (1993). Entrepreneurial intentions: Applying the theory of planned behavior. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 5(4), 315-330.

Krueger, N. F. J., Reilly, M. D., & Carsrud, A. L. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(5-6), 411-432.

Maresch, D., Harms, R., Kailer, N., & Wimmer-Wurm, B. (2016). The impact of entrepreneurship education on the entrepreneurial intentionof students in science and engineering versus business studies university programs. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 104, 172-179.

Mark, P., Rachel, S., Bryan, T., Francisco, L., & Jerry, F. (2008). The explaining entrepreneurial intentions of university students: a cross-cultural study. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 15(6), 571-594.

Matlay, H. (2005). Entrepreneurship education in UK business schools: conceptual, contextual and policy considerations. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 12(4), 627-643.

McClelland, D. C., Atkinson, J. W., Clark, R. A., & Lowell, E. L. (1953). The achievement motive (1st ed.). Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Mery, C. R. (2014). Is Entrepreneurship Education Really Needed? Examining the Antecedent of Entrepreneurial Career Intention. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 115, 44-53.

Neck, H. M., & Greene, P. G. (2011). Entrepreneurship Education: Know Worlds and New Frontiers. Journal of Small Business Management, 49, 55-70.

Nurdan, Ç., & Izlem, G. (2016). A comparison study on personality traits based on the attitudes of university students toward entrepreneurship, Social and Behavioral Sciences, 229, 133-140.

Nwankwo, B. E., Kanu, G. C., Marire, M. I., Balogun, S. K., & Uhiara, C. (2012). Gender-role orientation and self-efficacy as correlates of entrepreneurial intention. European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 1(6), 9-26.

Reynolds, P. D., Camp, S. M., Bygrave, W. D., Autio, E., & Hay, M. (2001). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor.

Robinson, P. B., Stimpson, D. V., Huefner, J. C., & Hunt, K. H. (1991). An attitude approach to the prediction of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 15(4), 13–31.

Rohit, A. (2016). Integrated optical switch matrices for packet data networks. Microsystems & Nanoengineering, 2(1), 15042.

Sarath, T., & Eric, P. (2020). An entrepreneurial intention model focusing on higher education. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 26(7), 1423-1447.

Shane, S., Locke, E. A., & Collins, C. J. (2012). Entrepreneurial motivation. Human Resource Management Review, 13(2), 257-279.

Sharma, S., Pradhan, K., Satya, S., & Vasudevan, P. (2005). Potentiality of earthworms for waste management and in other uses – a review. The J. Am. Sci., 1(1), 4-16.

Shasha, Y., & Leelakasemsant, C. (2022). Influencing Factors of Entrepreneurial Intention among Engineering Students in Sichuan, China. AU-GSB E-JOURNAL, 15(2), 25-36.

Shook, C. L., & Bratianu, C. (2010). Entrepreneurial intent in a transitional economy: an application of the theory of planned behavior to Romanian students. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 6(3), 231-247.

Sica, C., & Ghisi, M. (2007). The Italian versions of the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II: Psychometric properties and discriminant power. In M. A. Lange (Ed.), Leading-edge psychological tests and testing research (pp. 27–50). Nova Science Publishers.

Singh, K. D., & Onahing, B. D. (2019). Entrepreneurial intention, job satisfaction and organization commitment - construct of a research model through literature review. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 9(16), 1-18.

Solesvik, M. Z. (2013). Entrepreneurial motivations and intentions: investigating the role of education major. Education + Training, 55(3), 253-271.

Solesvik, M. Z., Westhead, P., Kolvereid, L., & Matlay, H. (2012). Student intentions to become self-employed: the Ukrainian context. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 19(3), 441-460.

State Council. (2015). Opinions on policies and measures for pushing through mass entrepreneurship and innovation (in Chinese).

Tariq, A. V. G. R. C., Jane, E. K., Francisco, L., & Panagiotis, K. (2020). Entrepreneurship education programmes: How learning, inspiration and resources affect intentions for new venture creation in a developing economy. The International Journal of Management Education, 18(1),100327.

Turker, D., & Selcuk, S. S. (2009). Which factors affect entrepreneurial intention of university students? Journal of European Industrial Training, 3(2), 142-159.

Vanessa, W. (2021). The world-renowned planning theorist. Planning Theory, 20(4), 1-10.

Wheaton, B., Muthen, B., Alwin, D. F., & Summers, G. (1977). Assessing Reliability and Stability in Panel Models. Sociological Methodology, 8, 84-136.

Wright, E., Feng, S., & Zheng, Y. (2021). Unemployed graduate to the next jack ma? A counter-narrative to the entrepreneurship movement in higher education. Higher Education, 83, 863-880.

Wu, H., & Benson, S. A. (2017). Made in China 2025 and new trends of entrepreneurship education of China: A socio-economic-educational perspective. Asian Education Studies, 2(1), 1-10.

Wu, J. H., & Wang, Y. M. (2006). Measuring KMS Success: A Respecification of the DeLone and McLean’s Model. Journal of Information & Management, 43, 728-739.

YZJBYS. (2017). The entrepreneurship in Zhejiang graduated college students’ 2016-2017.

Zhao, H., Seibert, S., & Hills, G. (2005). The mediating role of self-efficacy in the development of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), 1265-1272.

Zhejiang New. (2019). Experience Zhaohe New Material.

Zhou, M., & Xu, H. (2012). A review of entrepreneurship education for college students in China. Administrative Sciences, 2(1), 82–98.