An action research on developing intercultural competence of international virtual team

Main Article Content

Qi Wang


Purpose: With increasing need of using international virtual team in higher education institute, especially at the post-pandemic stage, the purpose of this action research is to investigate appropriate organization development interventions for developing intercultural competence of international virtual team.

Research design, data and methodology: This action research is conducted at a private higher education institution called Heilongjiang International University, China. 45 students majored in Business are chosen by purposive sampling for organization development intervention stage. Mixed methods are applied at the pre-and post-stage. Questionnaire and semi-structured interview are conducted at both pre-and post-ODI stage. Quantitative data is analyzed by SPSS statistical tool and data from interview is explained by content analysis. Paired sample T-test is used for data comparison between the Pre-ODI and Post-ODI stage.

Results: The key finds represent that there is a significant difference between Pre-ODI and post-ODI stage for reflective learning, knowledge sharing, cognitive competence, affective competence and behavioral competence.

Conclusions: Collaborative learning can be seen as effective strategy to developing intercultural competence of international virtual team. Recommendation according to different learning strategy comprise developing course and activities with strategies, intervention designed for instructors before students and focusing on the long-term reinforcement educational plan.  


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Wang, Q. (2022). An action research on developing intercultural competence of international virtual team. AU-GSB E-JOURNAL, 15(1), 75-86.


Abdelrahman, M., Masri, F., & Skoumpopoulou, D. (2019). Knowledge Management Systems Characteristics That Support Knowledge Sharing and Decision-Making Processes in Organizations. In Y. Albastaki, A. Al-Alawi, & S. Abdulrahman Al-Bassam (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Implementing Knowledge Management Strategy in the Public Sector

Baanqud, N.S., Al-Samarraie, H., Alzahrani, A.I. (2020) Engagement in cloud-supported collaborative learning and student knowledge construction: a modeling study. Int J Educ Technol High Educ 17, 56.

Becerra-Fernandez, I., & Sabherwal, R. (2011). The Role of Information and Communication Technologies in Knowledge Management: A Classification of Knowledge Management Systems. In D. Schwartz, & D. Te'eni (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management, Second Edition (pp. 1410-1418).

Brewer, P. (2010). Miscommunication in international virtual workplaces: A report on a multicase study. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 53(4), 329-345.

Bradford, D.L., & Burke, W.W. (2005). Reinventing organization development: new approaches to change in organizations.

Bardhoshi, G., Erford, B. T., Sherman, M. F., & Atalay, Z. (2017). Brief Psychometric Analysis of the Self-Evaluation Scale–Parent Report (SES–P). Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation, 8(2), 63–76.

Chen C. (2016). Research on intercultural communication competence measurement of Chinese University students. Hunan Normal University

Chen, C. J., & Hung, S. W. (2010). To give or to receive? Factors influencing members’ knowledge sharing and community promotion in professional virtual communities. Information & Management, 47(4), 226-236.

Chen, G. M., & Starosta, W. J. (1996). Intercultural Communication Competence: A Synthesis. Annals of the International Communication Association, 19(1), 353–383.

Corbin J, Morse J. M. (2003) The unstructured interactive interview: Issues of reciprocity and risks when dealing with sensitive topics. Qual Inq 2003;9:335-54.

de Hei, M., Tabacaru, C., Sjoer, E., Rippe, R., & Walenkamp, J. (2019). Developing Intercultural Competence Through Collaborative Learning in International Higher Education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 24(2), 190–211.

Deardorff, D. K. (2004) .Identification and Assessment of Intercultural Competence as a Student Outcome of Internationalization. Journal of Studies in International Education, Vol. 10 No. 3, Fall 2006 241-266.

Dekker, D. (2008). Global virtual teams: Enhancing effectiveness.Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.

Dekker, D., Rutte, C., & Van den Berg, P. (2008). Cultural differences in the perception of critical interaction behaviors in global virtual teams. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32(2008), 441-452.

Dodd, C. (1987). The dynamics of intercultural communication. Dubuque, IA:Wm. C. Brown Publishers.

Evans, C. M. (2017). Interpersonal Communication Application to Leadership. In V. Wang (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Strategic Leadership and Management. IGI Global

Erford, B. T., Bardhoshi, G., Ross, M., Gunther, C., & Duncan, K. (2017). Meta-Analysis of Counseling Outcomes for Youth With Conduct Disorders. Journal of Counseling & Development, 95(1), 35–44.

Ferrari, F. (2020). Organizational and Socio-Relational Factors Undermining Knowledge Sharing in Family SMEs: An Empirical Investigation in the Italian Context. In J. Palma- Ruiz, I. Barros-Contreras, & L. Gnan (Eds.), Handbook of Research on the Strategic Management of Family Businesses

Ferreira-Lopes, L., Elexpuru-Albizuri, I. & Bezanilla, M.J. (2021), Developing business students’ intercultural competence through intercultural virtual collaboration: a task sequence implementation, Journal of International Education in Business, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.

Goettsch, Karin L. (2014) Understanding intercultural communication on global virtual teams: exploring challenges of language, culture, technology, and collaboration. Retrieved from the University of Minnesota Digital Conservancy.

GUDYKUNST, W. B. (1997). Cultural Variability in Communication. Communication Research, 24(4), 327-348.

Hill, C.W. (2001) International Business: Competing in the Global Marketplace, Burr Ridge, IL: Irwin McGraw-Hill.

Halpern, D. F. (1996). Thought and knowledge: an introduction to critical thinking (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.

Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations, software of the mind (3rd Ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.

Hambleton, I. (1977). Existence of Free Involution on 5-Manifolds. Indiana University Mathematics Journal, 26(4),777.

Hu, J. (2013). Cross-culture conflict management. Course Teaching and Research. (5)

Iles, P. (1995). Learning to work with difference. Personnel Review, 24(6), 44-60.

Inkaew, Manachai (2016).An Analysis of Intercultural Communicative Competence: Hotel Front Office Personnel in Bangkok. Journal of Language Teaching and Learning in Thailand, 51 185-214.

Knapp, M. L., & Daly, J. A. (2011). The SAGE Handbook of Interpersonal Communication (4th ed.). California: SAGE Publications.

Kelley, C. & Meyers, J., (1995). The cross-cultural

adaptability inventory: Manual. Minneapolis: MN:

NCS Pearson.

Law, W. K. (2009). Cross-Cultural Challenges for Information Resources Management. In M. Khosrow-Pour, D.B.A., Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Second Edition, 840-846.

Lin, C.Y., Huang, C.K., & Ko, C.J. (2020). The impact of perceived enjoyment on team efectiveness and individual learning in a blended learning business course: The mediating effect of knowledge sharing. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 36, 126–141.

Likert, R. (1932). A technique for measurement of attitudes. Archives of Psychology, 140, 5-55

Lustig, M. W., & Koester, J. (2002). Intercultural Competence: Interpersonal Communication Across Cultures (4th Edition) (4th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.

Lloyd, S., & Härtel, C. (2010). Intercultural competencies for culturally diverse work teams. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25(8), 845–875.

Murdoch, K. & Wilson, J. (2008). Creating a learner-centred primary classroom: Learner-centred strategic teaching. Paperback (1st ed.). Routledge.

Mäkäräinen-Suni, I., & Hong, J. (2011). Ba and Communities of Practice in Research and Strategic Communities as a Way Forward. In O. Hernáez, & E. Bueno Campos (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Communities of Practice for Organizational Management and Networking: Methodologies for Competitive Advantage

Magnier-Watanabe, R., Watanabe, Y., Aba, O., & Herrig, H. (2017). Global virtual teams’ education: experiential learning in the classroom. On the Horizon, 25(4), 267–285.

Murphy-Lejeune, E. (2003). An Experience of Interculturality: Student travellers abroad. In G. Alred, M. Byram, & M. Fleming (Eds.), Intercultural experience and education (pp. 101-113). Great Britain: Cromwell Press Ltd.

Rosenberg, E., Kirmayer, L. J., Xenocostas, S., Dao, M. D., & Loignon, C. (2007). GPs’ strategies in intercultural clinical encounters. Family Practice, 24(2),145–151.

Wang, Y, & Miao, L. (2020). Ethnographic approaches to developing intercultural competence through intercultural interactions in the higher education context in China. In E. Hagley & Y. Wang (Eds), Virtual exchange in the Asia-Pacific: research and practice (pp. 11-36).Indrani Dewi Anggraini

O’Dowd, R. (2018). From telecollaboration to virtual exchange: state-of-the-art and the role of UNICollaboration in moving forward. Journal of Virtual Exchange, 1, 1-23.;

Perry, L. B., & Southwell, L. (2011). Developing intercultural understanding and skills: models and approaches. Intercultural Education, 22(6), 453–466.

Ruben, B. D., & Kealey, D. J. (1979). Behavioral assessment of communication competency and the prediction of cross-cultural adaptation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 3(1), 15–47.

Smith, B. L. & MacGregor, J. T. (1992). What Is Collaborative Learning. In Goodsell, A. S. (Ed.), Collaborative Learning: a sourcebook for higher education. University Park, PA: National Center on Postsecondary Teaching, Learning, and Assessment. Durham Thesis, Durham University

Sherer, Pamela & Shea, Timothy. (2011). Using Online Video to Support Student Learning and Engagement. College Teaching. 59. 56-59.

Shachaf, P. (2008). Cultural diversity and information and communication technology impacts on global virtual teams: An exploratory study. Information & Management, 45(2), 131–142.

Trautrims, A., Defee, C., & Farris, T. (2016). Preparing business students for workplace reality – using global virtual teams in logistics and SCM education. The International Journal of Logistics Management, 27(3), 886–907.

Ueno, S., & Sekaran, U. (1992). The Influence of Culture on Budget Control Practices in the USA and Japan: An Empirical Study. Journal of International Business Studies, 23(4), 659–674.

Vassiliou, A. (2013), Why European universities must become more international, Press conference on European higher education in the world, European Commission, Brussels

Wang Y. (2015). Research on cultivate intercultural competence of universities’ internalization business students. International Business.

Yang Y, Liu B, & Song Y. (2013). Relevant research of Intercultural competence and employability. Journal of Teachers in Education, 11(007), 153-156.

Zhu, X.M. (2012). Research of collaborative learning in digital classroom. Doctoral dissertation, Huazhong Noemal University