Blended Learning in Teaching Piano Major Students in the Music Department of Hunan Vocational College of Art


  • Liu Yang Graduate School of Business and Advanced Technology Management, Assumption University of Thailand.

DOI: 10.14456/shserj.2023.13
Published: 2023-06-09


Blended Learning Approach, Piano Performance, Perceptions, Technology Acceptance Model


Purpose: The purposes of the research were to 1) explore the effectiveness of the blended learning approach of piano on the performance of the major students in the Music department of Hunan Vocational College of Art and 2) to determine the students' perceptions of the blended learning approach through a questionnaire survey. The participants of this study were 59 students majoring in piano, freshmen and sophomores who were studying with a face-to-face method and Violy application at the Music Department of Hunan Vocational College of Art. The quantitative research design of the quasi-experiment and questionnaire were conducted. The paired sample t-test was applied for hypothesis testing while the descriptive analysis—mean and standard deviation were used to report the samples' perceptions towards blended learning. The results revealed statistically significant differences between the scores of piano performance post-test after Violy had been employed and the pretest. The four piano performances measured-accuracy, technique, musicality, and repertoire difficulty had shown the improvement scores of the students once the Violy application was integrated as a teaching method. In addition, the students exposed to the Violy application expressed positive attitudes toward the usage of the Violy application. Therefore, the Violy application is a proven effective learning tool to improve student piano performance.


Adileh, M. T. (2012). Teaching Music as a University Elective Course through e-Learning. Australian Journal of Music Education, 1(1), 71-79.

Ahmad, A., & Schreurs, J. (2012). Constructivism-based blended learning in higher education. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in learning, 7(1), 1-7.

Alaidarous, K., & Madini, A. A. (2016). Exploring EFL students' perception in a blended learning environment in Saudi technical education context. International Journal of Educational Investigations, 3(6), 69-81.

Bednar, A. K., Cunningham, D., Duffy, T. M., & Perry, J. D. (1992). Theory into practice: How do we link? Constructivism and the technology of instruction: A conversation, 8(1), 17-34.

Bjøntegaard, B. J. (2015). A combination of one-to-one teaching and small group teaching in higher music education in Norway–a good model for teaching?. British Journal of Music Education, 32(1), 23-36.

Bryan, D. M. (2004). Student/teacher interaction in the one-to-one piano lesson [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Sheffield.

Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of Information Technology. MIS Quarterly, 13(3), 319-340.

Hadjerrouit, S. (2008). Towards a blended learning model for teaching and learning computer programming: A case study. Informatics in Education, 7(2), 181-210.

Henry, M. L. (2011). The Effect of Pitch and Rhythm Difficulty in Vocal Sight-Reading Performance. Journal of Research in Music Education, 59(1), 72-84.

Hunter, R. J. (1973). The teaching of ten functional piano skills to undergraduate music education majors at selected west coast four-year colleges and universities [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of the Pacific.

Jenkins, L. E., & Crawford, R. (2016). The impact of blended learning and team teaching in tertiary pre-service music education classes. Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice, 13(3), 1-25.

Johnson, C. (2016). Developing a teaching framework for online music courses [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. the University of Calgary.

Jorgensen, H. (2000). Student learning in higher instrumental education: who is responsible?. British Journal of Music Education, 17(1), 67-77.

Kalkanoglu, B. (2020). The student opinions regarding the piano training methods: The sample of Trabzon university state conservatory. International Journal of Eurasian Education and Culture, 9(5), 1041-1068.

Masrom, M. (2007). Technology acceptance model and e-learning. Technology, 21(24), 81-91.

Neuhaus, H. (1973). The Art of Piano Playing. Praeger Publishers.

Osguthorpe, R. T., & Graham, C. R. (2003). Blended learning environments: Definitions and directions. Quarterly review of distance education, 4(3), 227-33.

Palmer, C., & Dalla, B. S. (2004). Movement amplitude and tempo change in piano performance. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 115(5), 2590-2590.

Percival, G., Wang, Y., & Tzanetakis, G. (2007). Effective use of multimedia for computer-assisted musical instrument tutoring. In Proceedings of the international workshop on Educational multimedia and multimedia education (Emme ‟07), 67-76.

Piaget, J. (1973). The child and reality: Problems of genetic psychology. Penguin Books.

Picciano, A. G. (2009). Blending with purpose: The multimodal model. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 13(1), 7-18.

Ramoneda, P., Tamer, N. C., Eremenko, V., Serra, X., & Miron, M. (2022). Score difficulty analysis for piano performance education based on fingering. ICASSP 2022-2022 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 201-205.

Rovinelli, R. J., & Hambleton, R. K. (1977). On the use of content specialists in the assessment of criterion-referenced test item validity. Dutch Journal of Educational Research, 2(1),49-60.

Sekaran, U. (2003). Research Methods for Business. A Skill-Building Approach (4th Ed.). John Wiley & Son Inc.

Shenzhen Mango Future Education Technology. (2017, December15). Violy Practice makes perfect. The Nation China.

Sumak, B., Heričko, M., Pušnik, M., & Polančič, G. (2011). Factors Affecting Acceptance and Use of Moodle: An Empirical Study Based on TAM. Autonomic and Self-Adaptive Systems, 35(1), 91-100.

Syakur, A., Fanani, Z., & Ahmadi, R. (2020). The Effectiveness of Reading English Learning Process Based on Blended Learning through "Absyak" Website Media in Higher Education. Budapest International Research and Critics in Linguistics and Education (BirLE) Journal, 3(2), 763-772.

Tan, H., & Brahmakasikara, L. (2021). A blended learning design to improve non-music students' knowledge of Chinese Traditional Music in Hunan Agriculture University. ABAC ODI JOURNAL Vision Action Outcome, 9(1), 1-23.

Venkatesh, V., & Davis, F. D. (2000). A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: Four longitudinal field studies. Management Science, 46(2), 186-204.

West, R., & Graham, C. (2005). Five Powerful Ways Technology Can Enhance Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. Educational Technology, 45(3), 20-27.

Yan, Z. (2021). A Preliminary Study of Inner Hearing in Music Performance. In 7th International Conferene on Arts, Design and Contemporary Education (ICADCE 2021), 572, 158-162.

Zhang, M. L. (2021). The use of musicality in piano performance: Taking the first part of Schumann's Piano cycle Butterfly is an example. Art Review, 3(1),84-86.

Zhang, N., & Li, J. (2021). Research on the integration and development of internet piano teaching and traditional piano teaching. Frontiers in Art Research, 3(8), 77-81.

Zhang, Y. (2009). On scoring methods of piano examination. Journal of Hubei Second Normal University, 26(6), 119-120.




How to Cite

Yang, L. (2023). Blended Learning in Teaching Piano Major Students in the Music Department of Hunan Vocational College of Art. Scholar: Human Sciences, 15(1), 123-131.