Designing a Framework and Strategies to Enhance Individual Innovative Work Behavior : A Case of a Non-Profit in Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Innovation has become such a big part of our everyday life that everywhere we go, whatever we do, we tend to seek something new, whether these are new ideas, new experiences, new products, new places, or new technologies. For organizations in highly competitive environments, innovation ensures sustainability and competitive advantage. However, innovativeness comes from the organization's people, so innovative work behavior has rapidly become a significant factor for organizations to explore and establish. This research assesses the needs of five factors that enhance individual innovative work behavior in Pact Cambodia: job resourcefulness, work empowerment, employee motivation, leader-member exchange (LMX), and work engagement. A mixed research methodology was used, and the respondents included the population in the non-profit organization. All 25 employees responded to the survey questionnaire for quantitative research, whereas eight key employees were selected to participate in a focus group discussion. The quantitative data were analyzed using Cronbach's Alpha testing, descriptive analysis, and Priority needs index modified (PNImod). The qualitative data were analyzed using the inter-coding method. The results from PNIMod show that work empowerment, employee motivation, leader-member exchange, and innovative work behavior are the four factors that must be prioritized. The interview questionnaire used appreciative inquiry (AI) questions to further explore work engagement and innovative work behavior. Based on the overall results, the current situation of innovative work behavior is favorable, but PNIModified suggested that some factors should be prioritized to enhance individual innovative work behavior. Therefore, a framework and strategies are presented based on all data results.
Alfes, K., Shantz, A., Truss, C. & Soane, E. (2013). The link between perceived human resource management practices, engagement, and employee behaviour: a moderated mediation model. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(2), 330-351.
Altschuld, J.W., & Kumar, D.D. (2010). Needs assessment: An overview. SAGE Publications.
Bande, B., Fernandez-Ferrin, P., Varela-Neira, C. & Otero-Neira, C. (2016). Exploring the relationship among servant leadership, intrinsic motivation and performance in an industrial sales setting. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 31(2), 219-231.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Prentice Hall.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The Exercise of Control. W. H. Freeman.
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. Media Psychology, 3(3), 265-299.
Bao, Z. & Han, Z. (2019). What drives users' participation in online social Q&A communities? An empirical study based on social cognitive theory. Aslib Journal of Information Management, 71(5), 637-656. https://doi.org/10.1108/AJIM-01-2019-0002.
Bhatnagar, J. (2012). Management of innovation: role of psychological empowerment, work engagement and turnover intention in the Indian context. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(5), 928-951.
Boateng, H., Adam, D.R., Okoe, A.F. & Anning-Dorson, T. (2016). Assessing the determinants of internet banking adoption intentions: a social cognitive theory perspective. Computers in Human Behavior, 65, 468-478.
Bos-Nehles, A., Renkema, M. & Janssen, M. (2017). HRM and innovative work behavior: a systematic literature review. Personnel Review, 46(7), 1228-1253.
Brockner, J. & Higgins, E.T. (2001). Regulatory focus theory: implications for the study of emotions at work. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86(1), 35-66.
Cheng, J.C. & Chen, C.Y. (2017). Job resourcefulness, work engagement and prosocial service behaviors in the hospitality industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(10), 2668-2687.
Cooperider, D.L. & Whitney, D. (1999). Appreciative Inquiry. Berrett-Koehler.
Crowe, E., & Higgins, E. T. (1997). Regulatory focus and strategic inclinations: Promotion and prevention in decision-making. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 69(2), 117–132. https://doi.org/10.1006/obhd.1996.2675.
Davis, P.J. (2020). Getting employees involved in strategy planning. Journal of Business Strategy, 41(1), 58-64. https://doi.org/10.1108/JBS-04-2018-0060.
Deci, EL & Ryan, R.M. (2000). The 'what' and why' of goal pursuits: human needs and the self-determination of behaviour. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227-68.
Deci, EL & Ryan, R.M. (2008). Self-determination theory: a macro theory of human motivation, development, and health. Canadian Psychology, 49(3), 182-5.
De Jong, J. (2007). Individual innovation: The connection between leadership and employees' innovative work behavior [Doctoral thesis, University of Twente]. Zoetermeer:EIM.
Du Chatenier, E. (2009). Open Innovation Competence: Towards a Competence Profile for Inter-organizational Collaboration in Innovation Teams [Doctoral thesis, Wageningen University].
Dysvik, A. & Kuvaas, B. (2013). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as predictors of work effort: the moderating role of achievement goals. British Journal of Social Psychology, 52(3), 412-430.
Friedman, R. S., & Fo¨ rster, J. (2001). The effects of promotion and prevention cues on creativity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 1001–1013.
Graen, GB & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Relationship-based approach to leadership: development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective. The Leadership Quarterly, 6(2), 219-247.
Harris, E.G., Artis, A.B., Fogliasso, C. & Fleming, D.E. (2007). Hospital employee job resourcefulness: an empirical study and implications for health care marketing. Health Marketing Quarterly, 24(½), 63-75.
Harris, E.G., Artis, A.B., Walters, J.H. & Licata, J.W. (2006). Role stressors service worker job resourcefulness, and job outcomes: an empirical analysis. Journal of Business Research, 59(4), 407-415.
Hewitt Associates. (2009). Engagement and culture: engaging talent in turbulent times. HewittAssociates.com.https://www.hewittassociates.com/Intl/AP/en-AP/KnowledgeCenter/Magazine/HQ_20/ask-our-expert.html.
Higgins, E.T. (1997). Beyond pleasure and pain. American Psychologist, 52(12), 1280-1300.
Higgins, E.T. (1998). Promotion and prevention: regulatory focus as a motivational principle" in Zanna, MP (Ed.). Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 30, 1-46.
Higgins, E.T. (2000). Does personality provide unique explanations for behaviour? Personality as cross-person variability in general principles. European Journal of Personality, 14(5), 391-406.
Huertas-Valdivia, I., Llorens-Montes, F.J. & Ruiz-Moreno, A. (2018). Achieving engagement among hospitality employees: a serial mediation model. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30(1), 217-241. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-09-2016-0538.
Jaskyte, K., Amato, O. & Sperber, R. (2018). Foundations and innovation in the non-profit sector. Non-profit Management and Leadership, 29(1), 47-64.
Kahn, W.A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33(4), 692-724.
Karatepe, O.M. & Aga, M. (2012). Work engagement as a mediator of the effects of personality traits on job outcomes: a study of frontline employees. Services Marketing Quarterly, 33(4), 343-362.
Karatepe, O.M. & Demir, E. (2014). Linking core self-evaluations and work engagement to work-family facilitation: a study in the hotel industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 26(2), 307-323.
Karatepe, O.M. & Douri, B.G. (2012). Does customer orientation mediate the effect of job resourcefulness on hotel employee outcomes? Evidence from Iran. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 19(1), 109-118.
Lam, T.W. & Chiu, C.Y. (2002). The motivational function of regulatory focus in creativity. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 36(2), 135-150.
Li, CR, Li, CX & Lin, C.J. (2018). How and when team regulatory focus influences team innovation and member creativity. Personnel Review, 47(1), 95-117. https://doi.org/10.1108/PR-09-2016-0236.
Liaw, Y.J., Chi, N.W. & Chuang, A. (2010). Examining the mechanisms linking transformational leadership, employee customer orientation, and service performance: the mediating roles of perceived supervisor and co-worker supports", Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol. 25 No. 3, pp. 477-492.
Licata, J.W., Mowen, J.C., Harris, E.G. & Brown, T.J. (2003). On the trait of antecedents and outcomes of service worker job resourcefulness: a hierarchical model approach. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 31(3), 256-271.
Menguc, B., Auh, S., Fisher, M. & Haddad, A. (2013). To be engaged or not to be engaged: the antecedents and consequences of service employee engagement. Journal of Business Research, 66(11), 2163-2170.
Meyer, M. & Leitner, J. (2018). Slack and innovation: the role of human resources in non-profits. Non-profit Management and Leadership, 29(4), 441-454.
Minbaeva, D. (2008). HRM practices affecting extrinsic and intrinsic motivation of knowledge receivers and their effect on intra-MNC knowledge transfer. Working Paper (12).
Morrison, E.W. & Phelps, C.C. (1999). Taking charge at work: extra role efforts to initiate workplace change. Academy of Management Journal, 42(4), 403-419.
Nowak, R. (2019). Developing serving culture: focus on workplace empowerment. Employee Relations, 41(6), 1312-1329. https://doi.org/10.1108/ER-01-2018-0011.
Paek, S., Schuckert, M., Kim, T.T. & Lee, G. (2015). Why is hospitality employees' psychological capital important? the effects of psychological capital on work engagement and employee morale. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 50, 9-26.
Qu, R., Janssen, O. & Shi, K. (2017). Leader-member exchange and follower creativity: the moderating roles of leader and follower expectations for creativity. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 28(4), 603-626.
Quinn, R.E. & Spreitzer, G.M. (1997). The road to empowerment: seven questions every leader should consider. Organizational Dynamics, 26(2), 37-49.
Quirke, B. (2008). Making the Connections: Using Internal Communication to Turn Strategy into Action. Gower.
Ramlall, S. (2004). A review of employee motivation theories and their implications for employee retention within organizations. Journal of American Academy of Business, 5, 52-63.
Ranucci, R. & Lee, H. (2019). Donor influence on long-term innovation within non-profit organizations. Non-profit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 48(5), 1045-1065.
Rich, L.L., Rich, J. & Hair, J. (2018). The influence of organizational culture on how we define and pursue goals: The value of regulatory focus. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, 5(3), 259-277. https://doi.org/10.1108/JOEPP-03-2018-0017.
Rietzschel, E.F. (2011). Collective regulatory focus predicts specific aspects of team innovation. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 14(3), 337-345.
Rita, M., Randa Payangan, O., Rante, Y., Tuhumena, R. & Erari, A. (2018). Moderating effect of organizational citizenship behavior on the effect of organizational commitment, transformational leadership and work motivation on employee performance. International Journal of Law and Management, 60(4), 953-964.
Royse, D., Staton-Tindall, M., Badger, K., & Webster, M. (2009). Needs assessment. Oxford University Press.
Ryan, R.M. & Deci, EL (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 54-67.
Saeed, B.B., Afsar, B., Cheema, S. & Javed, F. (2019). Leader-member exchange and innovative work behavior: The role of creative process engagement, core self-evaluation, and domain knowledge. European Journal of Innovation Management, 22(1), 105-124. https://doi.org/10.1108/EJIM-11-2017-0158.
Sapsombat, W. & Roengsumran, A. (2019). A Needs Assessment Study to Improve the Quality of the Thailand National Test. ASEAN Journal of Education, 5(1), 33-43. https://so01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/AJE/article/view/199716.
Schermuly, C.C., Meyer, B. & Dammer, L. (2013). Leader-member exchange and innovative behavior. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 12(3), 132-142.
Semedo, A.S.D., Coelho, A.F.M. & Ribeiro, N.M.P. (2016). Effects of authentic leadership, affective commitment and job resourcefulness on employees' creativity and individual performance. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 37(8), 1038-1055.
Shah, J., Higgins, T. & Friedman, R.S. (1998). Performance incentives and means: how regulatory focus influences goal attainment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(2), 285-293.
Shuck, B. and Wollard, K. (2010). Employee engagement and HRD: a seminal review of the foundations. Human Resource Development Review, 9(1), 89-110.
Skudiene, V. & Auruskeviciene, V. (2012). The contribution of corporate social responsibility to internal employee motivation. Baltic Journal of Management, 7(1), 49-67. https://doi.org/10.1108/17465261211197421.
Spreitzer, G.M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 38(5), 1442-1465.
Stegmann, K., Pilz, F., Siebeck, M. & Fischer, F. (2012). Vicarious learning during simulations: is it more effective than hands-on training?. Medical Education, 46(10), 1001-1008.
Tierney, P. & Farmer, S.M. (2011). Creative self-efficacy development and creative performance over time. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(2), 277-299.
Ugwu, F.O., Onyishi, I.E. & Rodríguez-Sánchez, A.M. (2014). Linking organizational trust with employee engagement: the role of psychological empowerment. Personnel Review, 43(3), 377-400. https://doi.org/10.1108/PR-11-2012-0198.
Volmer, J., Spurk, D. & Niessen, C. (2012). Leader-member exchange (LMX), job autonomy, and creative work involvement. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(3), 456-465.
Wang, C.J. (2016). Does leader-member exchange enhance performance in the hospitality industry? The mediating roles of task motivation and creativity. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28(5), 969-987.
Wang, X.H.F., Fang, Y., Qureshi, I. & Janssen, O. (2015). Understanding employee innovative behavior: integrating the social network and leader-member exchange perspectives. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(3), 403-420.
Wallace, C. & Chen, G. (2006). A multilevel integration of personality, climate, self-regulation, and performance. Personnel Psychology, 59(3), 529-557.
Watkins, R., Meiers, M., & Visser, Y.L. (2012). A guide to assessing needs: Essential tools for collecting information, making decisions, and achieving development results. The World Bank.
Witkin, R. & Altschuld, J.W. (1995). Planning and conducting needs assessments: A practical guide. Sage.
Wongwanich, S. & Wiratchai, N. (2005). A Follow-up and Evaluation of the Government Educational Reform Results Based on the State Fundamental Policy and the National Act. Journal of Research methodology, 18(1), 93-124.
Woolley, K. & Fishbach, A. (2018). It's about time: earlier rewards increase intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 114(6), 887-890.
Yeh, C.W. (2012). Relationships among service climate, psychological contract, work engagement and service performance. Journal of Air Transport Management, 25(C), 67-70.
Yuan, F. & Woodman, R.W. (2010). Innovative behavior in the workplace: the role of performance and image outcome expectations. The Academy of Management Journal, 53(2), 323-342.