An Initial Analysis of Leadership Competencies for Organization Development Intervention: A Case Study Of Educational QA Agency
Keywords:leadership competency development / educational qa agency/ a culture of quality/ od intervention
This research is aims to determine the leadership competencies for organization development intervention; it is a case study on educational quality assessment (QA) agency in Thailand. The objectives consisted of first, to identify and compare the current and expected perception toward leadership competencies of employees and management, and second, to identify the most important leadership competency. The nature of this research work is research and development while employing the mixed method for data collection, analysis and interpretation. The eighty-one employees completed the questionnaires and ten of them were interviewed. The content validity on the instruments were reviewed by three experts prior to the realiability, Cronbach’s Alpha was tested. The result of reliability Cronbach indicated 0.968 on all questions in the questionniare. Key findings based on the survey showed that leaders “sometimes” demonstrated leading behaviors. Top three leadership competencies that are frequently perceived comprised professional knowledge, decision-making/problem-solving, and development of others. Statistically, there was significant difference between current and expected perception in every leadership competency component with the P value of 0.01. When comparing the perception between management and employee, it was found to have significant difference in driving result, strategic thinking and communication. When ranking all components of leadership competencies to determine the most important factors, the most important leadership competencies were professional knowledge, following with driving results, and strategic thinking. Qualitatively based on the interviews, employees recognized the needs for leadership competency to be develop with the emphasis on development of others, building a team, and supporting work performance. In conclusion, based on mixed methods data, the recommendations for leadership competency of the participating organization were that first, a roadmap to leadership competency development is essential, and second, customization on leadership competency in practices is to be done appropriately to minimize leadership competency gap among the management level.
Adam, B. (2013). Closing the Leadership Gap in Asia. Retrieved from: https://www.smu.edu.sg/perspectives/2013/09/25/closing-leadership-gap-asia
ASQ. (2018). Lean Kaizen: A Simplified Approach To Process Improvement. Retrieved from https://asq.org/training/lean-kaizen-a-simplified-approach-to-process-improvement-kaizen
Burrell, (n.d). Leadership Competencies Questionnaire. Retrieved from http://web.mit.edu/10.26/www/Team-Building/Forms/leadership_competencies.html
Bush, T. and Glover, D. (2004) Leadership Development: Evidence and beliefs. National College for School Leadership. Available online at: [www.ncsl.org.uk/media/F7A/88/ bush-school-leadership-full.pdf]
Case, P. and Bolden, R. and Gosling, J. (2005). What is Leadership Development? Purpose and Practice. Retrieved from http://www.authentic-change.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/leadership-development-purpose-and-practice.pdf
Center for Creative Leadership (Greensboro, NC). (2015). The center for creative leadership handbook of coaching in organizations: 1. ed. San Francisco, Calif: Jossey-Bass.
Clemmer, J. (2012). Leadership Competency Models: Why Many Are Failing and How To Make Them Flourish. Retrieved from https://www.clemmergroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/LeadershipCompetencyModels.pdf
Chan, T.C. & Quazi, H.A. (2002), “Overview of quality management practices in selected Asian countries”, Quality Management Journal, Vol. 9 No. 1, pp. 23-49.
Das, A., Kumar, V., Kumar, U. (2011) "The role of leadership competencies for implementing TQM: An empirical study in Thai manufacturing industry", International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, Vol. 28 Issue: 2, pp.195-219, doi: 10.1108/02656711111101755
Dean, J., D. Bowen. (1994). Management theory and total quality: Improving research and practice through theory development. Academy of Management Review 19, no. 3:392-418.
Desbrow, P.C. (2016). Transformational Leadership through Power and Influence. Retrieved from http://sites.psu.edu/leadership/2016/03/12/transformational-leadership-through-power-and-influence/
East Hampshire District Council. (2017). Leadership Competency Framework. Retrieved from https://www.easthants.gov.uk/sites/default/files/documents/Leadership%20Competency%20Framework.pdf
Georgia State Government. (2012). Georgia State Government’s Competency-Based Development Guide, Retrieved from https://doas.ga.gov/assets/Human%20Resources%20Administration/Performance%20Management%20Training%20Documents/CompetencyBasedDevelopmentGuide.pdf
Gosling, J. (2005). Leadership Courses. What is Leadership Development? Purpose and Practice, 2, 16.
Hall, J., Johnson, S., Wysocki, A., Kepner, K., Farnsworth, D., and Clark, J. L. (2005). Transformational Leadership: The Transformation of Managers and Associates. Retrieved from https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/HR/HR02000.pdf
Hay, I (2012) Transformational Leadership Characteristics and Criticisms. Retrieved from http://www.leadingtoday.org/weleadinlearning/transformationalleadership.htm
Human Resource University of Victoria, (2006). Core Competencies Self-Assessment Tool. Retrieved from https://www.uvic.ca/hr/assets/docs/od/core_self%20assesment.pdf
Investopedia (2018). Research and Development - R&D. Retrieved from https://www.investopedia.com/terms/r/randd.asp
KIPP. (2016). KIPP: Leadership Framework and Competency Model. Retrieved from http://www.kipp.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/KIPP_Leadership_Competency_Model.pdf
Laohavichien, T., Fredendall, L.D. and Cantrell, R.S. (2011), “Leadership and quality management practices in Thailand”, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 31 No. 10, pp. 1048-1070.
Maddock, S. (2012) "Public leadership: motivated by values not bonuses", International Journal of Leadership in Public Services, Vol. 8 Issue: 3, pp.112-120, doi: 10.1108/17479881211279986
Maesincee, S. (2016). Thai Economy 4.0 Transforming towards Value-Based Economy. Retrieved from: http://knit.or.th/th/sites/default/files/upload/13/1.ศ.ดร.ศันสนีย์%20ไชยโรจน์_KNIT%20Thailand%204.0.pdf (in Thai)
Malhi, R. S. (2013). Creating and sustaining: a Quality Culture. J Def Manag S3: 002. Doi:10.4172/2167-0374.S3-002
McCauley, C. (2006). Developmental assignments: Creating learning experiences without changing jobs. Greensboro, N.C.: Center for Creative Leadership Press. Permission granted from the Center for Creative Leadership to republish CCL's Model of Leader Competencies.
National Reform Steering Assembly. (2016). แผนการปฏิรูประบบการประกันคุณภาพการศึกษา [Reformation Plan for Educational Quality Assurance System]. Retrieved from http://library2.parliament.go.th/giventake/content_nrsa2558/d062159-03.pdf
Noronha, C. (2002) "Chinese cultural values and total quality climate", Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, Vol. 12 Issue: 4, pp.210-223, https://doi.org/10.1108/09604520210434820
Northouse, P. G. (2016). Leadership: Theory and Practice (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
OECD. (2014). OECD Competency Framework. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/careers/competency_framework_en.pdf
Office for National Education Standards and Quality Assessment. (2015). Quality Assurance in Thailand. Bangkok: Offset Plus Co., Ltd.
ONESQA. (2018). Strategy Plan 20 years. Retrieved from: http://eoffice.onesqa.or.th/e-office.ceo?chkmain=2 (in Thai)
Osrin, N. and Potter, J. (2005). What is Leadership Development? Purpose and Practice. Retrieved from http://www.authentic-change.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/leadership-development-purpose-and-practice.pdf
Pagon, M., Banutai, E., & Bizjak, U. (2008). Leadership competencies for successful change management. University of Maribor, Slovenia, EUPAN, 1-2.
Pedler, M, Burgoyne, J and Boydell, T (2001) A Manager Guide to Self Development, 4th edition, London: McGraw-Hill
Pimpa, N. (2012). Amazing Thailand: Organizational culture in the Thai public sector. International Business Research, 5(11), 35.
Pornrungroj, C. (2014). วัฒนธรรมคุณภาพ [Quality Culture]. Retrieved from www.onesqa.or.th (in Thai)
Porter, J. (2017). How to Give Feedback People Can Actually Use. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2017/10/how-to-give-feedback-people-can-actually-use
PP&S. (2016). Quality Management: Then, Now and Toward the Future. Retrieved from https://www.pp-s.com/Files/PPSWP_QMSbeyondprod.pdf
Promtan, T., Asawarungsaengkul K., Rungreunganun, V., & Intarakumthornchai, T. (2016). The Leadership Competency Model for Middle Management in Hard Disk Drive Industry. The Journal of KMUTNB., vol. 26, no. 3, pp.517-524, (in Thai).
Rosenbaum, A. (2003). New challenges for senior leadership enhancement for improved public management. United Nations Leadership and Social Transformation in the Public Sector: Moving from Challenges to Solutions. New York: United Nations, 103-113.
Safty, S. E. (2012). Five essential ingredients for a quality culture. Retrieved from https://www.processexcellencenetwork.com/lean-six-sigma-business-transformation/articles/key-ingredients-for-quality-culture-development
Santiago, P., K. Tremblay, E. Basri and E. Arnal (2008), Tertiary Education for the Knowledge Society, OECD Publishing, Paris. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/education/skills-beyond-school/41266759.pdf
Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University. (2016). Emerging Leaders PMA Pilot Program October 2016. Retrieved from https://www.schulich.uwo.ca/humanresources/staff/learning_development_opportunities/Emerging%20Leaders%20Program%20Guidebook%20-%20October%201,%202016.pdf
SHRM. (2008). Leadership Competencies. Retrieved from https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/hr-topics/behavioral-competencies/leadership-and-navigation/pages/leadershipcompetencies.aspx
Srinivasan, A. & Kurey, B. (2014) Creating a Culture of Quality. Harvard Business Review: Organizational Culture. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2014/04/creating-a-culture-of-quality
The W. Edwards Deming Institute. (2016). Dr. Deming's 14 Points for Management. Retrieved from https://deming.org/management-system/fourteenpoints
Western University, (2016). Leadership Competency Self-Assessment Questionnaire. Retrieved from https://www.schulich.uwo.ca/humanresources/staff/learning_development_opportunities/schulich_leadership_book_club_read_to_lead.html