The Factors Affecting Healthy Lifestyle and Attitude Towards Organic Foods: A Case Study of People Living in Bangkok, Thailand


  • Aunchisa Chareonpanich Assumption University
  • Rawin Vongurai


organic foods, attitude towards organic foods, food safety, health consciousness, healthy lifestyle, subjective norms, environmental concern



Nowadays, people worldwide are more aware of agricultural residues in foods. Consumers start to find an alternative way in food purchase. Health and wellness are the new lifestyle status for Asian consumers who are more health-conscious and interested in organic foods. China and India are two of the fastest growing markets for organic foods. Thailand is known as food basket of Asia and kitchen of the world due to an abundance of natural resources, and has increasingly emphasized on organically grown foods. The Thai government has introduced regulations and standards for organic agriculture and food, and encouraged Thai farmers to do organic farming. This opens a market opportunity for organic foods that are free from chemicals. Knowing the consumers’ attitudes towards organic foods and factors affecting the attitudes are necessary for product development to meet the demands, increase customer satisfaction, and gain the market share in this sector. This study targeted people living in Bangkok who have experienced organic foods. There were 400 respondents of the survey. The result reveals that health consciousness, environmental concern, food safety concern, and subjective norm have positive impacts on the attitude towards organic foods. On the other hand, healthy lifestyle does not have an impact on an attitude. Raising an awareness of chemical-free foods and the environmentally friendly practice of an organic farming will be key strategies to develop the food market in Thailand’s urban society.

Keywords: organic foods, attitude towards organic foods, food safety, health consciousness, healthy lifestyle, subjective norms, environmental concern

Author Biography

Aunchisa Chareonpanich, Assumption University

Master of Business Administration (M.B.A.)



Ajzen, I. (2002). Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 32 No. 4, pp.1-20.

Ajzen, I. and Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Prentice-Hall, Englewood-Cliffs, NJ.

Akaichi, F., Nayga, R.M.J., and Gil, J.M. (2012). Assessing consumers’ willingness to pay for different units of organic milk: evidence from multiunit auctions. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 60 No. 4, pp.469-494.

Baker, A. and Crosbie, P. (1993). Measuring food safety preferences: identifying consumer segments. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Vol. 18 No. 2, pp.277-287.

Baron, R.M. and Kenny, D.A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 51 No. 6, pp.1173-82.

Basha, M.B., Mason, C., Shamsudin, M.F., Hussain, H. I., and Salem, M. B. (2015). Consumers attitude towards organic food. Procedia Economics and Finance, Vol. 3, pp.444 – 452

Beharrel, B. and MacFie, J.H. (1991). Consumer attitudes to organic foods. British Food Journal, Vol. 93 No. 2, pp.25-30.

Brunsø, K. and Grunert, K.G. (1995). Development and testing of a cross-culturally valid instrument: food-related lifestyle. Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 22, pp.475-480.

Chang, M.K. (1998). Predicting unethical behavior: a comparison of the theory of reasoned action of the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 17 No. 16, pp.1825-1833.

Chen, M.F. (2009). Attitude toward organic foods among Taiwanese as related to health consciousness, environmental attitudes, and the mediating effects of a healthy lifestyle. British Food Journal, Vol. 111 No. 2, pp.165-178.

Chumpitaz, R. and Keslemont, M.P. (1997). Consumer’s perception of the environmental issue: a challenge for the green European marketer, paper presented at the 26th EMAC Conference, Warwick Business School, Warwick, May.

Cranfield, J. A., and E. Magnusson. (2003). Canadian consumers’ willingness-to-pay for pesticide free food products: An ordered probit analysis. International Food and Agribusiness Management Review. Vol. 6 No. 4, pp.14–30.

Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, Vol. 16, pp.297-334

Davies, A., Titterington, A.J. and Cochrane, C. (1995). Who buys organic food? A profile of the purchasers of organic food in Northern Ireland. British Food Journal, Vol. 97 No. 10, pp.17-23.

Dean, M., Raat, M.M., and Shepherd, R. (2008). Moral concerns and consumer choice of fresh and processed organic foods. J. Applied Soc. Psychol, Vol. 38, pp.2088-2107.

Eagly, A.H. and Chaiken, S. (1995). Attitude strength, attitude structure and resistance to change. in Petty, R.E. and Krosnick, J.A. (Eds), Attitude Strength: Antecedents and Consequences, Ohio State University Series on Attitudes and Persuasion, Vol. 4, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ.

EIC | Economic Intelligence Center. (2017). Thailand’s production of organic foods has healthy growth potential. Bangkok Post/Asia In Depth: Asia Focus section. Retrieved from, 15 Nov 2017

Fishbein, M.A. and Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

Gifford, K. and Bernard, J.C. (2006). Influencing consumer purchase likelihood of organic food. International Journal of Consumer Studies, Vol. 30 No. 2, pp.155-163.

Gineikiene, J., Kiudyte, J., and Degutis, M. (2017). Functional, organic or conventional? Food choices of health conscious and skeptical consumers. Baltic Journal of Management, Vol. 12 Issue: 2, pp.139-152.

Grunert, S. and Juhl, J.H. (1995). Values, environmental attitudes, and buying of organic foods. Journal of Economic Psychology, Vol. 16 No. 1, pp.39-62.

Ha, C.L. (1998). The theory of reasoned action applied to brand loyalty. Journal of Product and Brand Management, Vol. 7 No. 1, pp.51-61.

Haden, L. (2016). Growing naturally and organically. Economic Development Board (EDB) Singapore, Retrieved from, 2 Dec 2017.

Hill, H. and Lynchehaun, F. (2002). Organic milk: attitudes and consumption patterns. British Food Journal, Vol. 104 No. 7, pp.526-542

Honkanen, P., Verplanken, B. and Olsen, S.O. (2006). Ethical values and motives driving organic food choice”, Journal of Consumer Behaviour, Vol. 5 No. 5, pp.420-430.

Jolly, D., Schutz, H., Diez-Knauf, K., and Johal, J. (1989). Organic foods: Consumer attitudes and use. Food Technology, Vol. 43 No. 11, pp.61-66.

Jordan, J.L. and Elnaghebb, A.H. (1991). Public perception of food safety. Journal of Food Distribution Research, Vol. 22 No. 3, pp.13-22.

Lea, E. and Worsley, T. (2005). Australians’ organic food beliefs, demographics and values. British Food Journal, Vol. 107 No. 11, pp.855-869.

Lee, H. J. and Goudeau, C. (2014). Consumers’ beliefs, attitudes, and loyalty in purchasing organic foods: The standard learning hierarchy approach. British Food Journal, Vol. 116 Issue: 6, pp.918-930.

Lee, H. J. and Hwang, J. (2016). The driving role of consumers’ perceived credence attributes in organic food purchase decisions: A comparison of two groups of consumers. Food Quality and Preference, Vol. 54, pp.141-151

Lockie, S., Lyons, K., Lawrence, G., and Grice, J. (2004). Choosing organics: A path analysis of factors underlying the selection of organic food among Australian consumers. Appetite, Vol. 43 No. 2, pp.135-146.

Magnusson, M.K., Arvola, A., Koivisto Hursti, U.K., Aberg, L., and Sjoden, P.O. (2001). Attitudes towards organic foods among Swedish consumers. British Food Journal, Vol. 103 No. 3, pp.209-226.

Michaelidou, N. and Hassan, L.M. (2008). The push and pull towards organic: Clarifying the roles of health consciousness, food safety concern and ethical identity. International Journal of Consumer Studies, Vol. 32 No. 2, pp.163-170.

Mutlu, N. (2007). Consumer attitude and behavior towards organic food: Cross-cultural study of Turkey and Germany. Institute for agricultural policy and markets. Retrieved from, 10 Oct 2017.

Nasir, V.A. and Karakaya, F. (2014). Consumer segments in organic foods market. Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol.31 Issue: 4, pp.263-277.

Oude Ophuis, P.A.M. (1989). Measuring health orientation and health consciousness as determinants of food choice behavior: development and implementation of various Attitudinal Scales. Marketing Thought and Practice in the 1990s, EMAC XVIII, Athens School of Economics and Business, Athens, pp.1723-1725.

Padel, S. and Foster, C. (2005). Exploring the gap between attitudes and behavior understanding why consumers buy or do not buy organic food. British Food Journal, Vol. 107 No. 8, pp.606-625.

Perrini, F., Castaldo, S., Misani, N., and Tencati, A. (2010). The impact of corporate social responsibility associations on trust in organic products marketed by mainstream retailers: A study of Italian consumers. Business Strategy and the Environment, Vol. 19 No. 8, pp.512–526.

Roitner-Schobesberger, B., Darnhofer, I., Somsook, S., and Vogl, C.R. (2008). Consumer perceptions of organic foods in Bangkok, Thailand. Food Policy, Vol. 33 No. 2, pp.112-121.

Saba, A. and Messina, F. (2003). Attitudes toward organic foods and risk/benefit perception associated with Pesticides. Food Quality and Preference, Vol. 14 No. 8, pp.637-645.

Schifferstein, H.N.J. and Oude Ophuis, P.A.M. (1998). Health-related determinants of organic foods consumption in the Netherlands. Food Quality and Preference, Vol. 9 No. 3, pp.119-133.

Shimp, T.A. and Kavas, A. (1984). The theory of reasoned action applied to coupon usage. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 11 No. 3, pp.795-809.

Soil Association. (2000). Organic farming, food quality and human health: A review of the evidence. Soil Association, Bristol

Soler, F., Gil, J.M. and Sa´nchez, M. (2002). Consumers’ acceptability of organic food in Spain. British Food Journal, Vol. 104 No. 8, pp.670-687.

Stanton J. V., and Guion, D. T. (2010). Consumer attitudes toward organic foods: An exploration of U.S. market segments. Research in Consumer Behavior, Vol. 12, pp.5-41.

Swanson, R.B. and Lewis, C.E. (1993). Alaskan direct-market consumers: Perception of organic produce. Home Economics Research Journal, Vol. 22 No. 2, pp.138-155.

Swidi, A. A., Huque, S. M., Hafeez, M. H., and Shariff, M. N. (2014). The role of subjective norms in theory of planned behavior in the context of organic food consumption. British Food Journal, Vol. 116 Issue: 10, pp.1561-1580.

Tarkiainen, A. and Sundqvist, S. (2005). Subjective norms, attitudes and intentions of Finnish consumers in buying organic food. British Food Journal, Vol. 107 Issue: 11, pp.808-822.

Thøgersen, J. (2009). Consumer decision making with regard to organic food products. In Vaz, M.T.D.N., Vaz, P., Nijkamp, P. and Rastoin, J.L. (Eds), Traditional food production facing sustainability: A European Challenge, Ashgate, Farnham, pp.173-194.

Truong, T. T., Yap, M. H. T., and Ineson, E. M. (2012). Potential Vietnamese consumers' perceptions of organic foods. British Food Journal, Vol. 114 Issue: 4, pp.529-543.

Tsakiridou, E., Boutsouki, C., Zotos, Y., and Mattas, K. (2008). Attitudes and behaviour towards organic products: An exploratory study. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 36 Issue: 2, pp.158-175.

Tung, S. J., Shih, C. C., Wei, S. and, Chen, Y. H. (2012). Attitudinal inconsistency toward organic food in relation to purchasing intention and behavior: An illustration of Taiwan consumers. British Food Journal, Vol. 114 Issue: 7, pp.997-1015.

Vallerand, R.J., Deshaies, P., Cuerrier, J.P., Pelletier, L.G., and Mongeau, C. (1992). Ajzen and Fishbein’s theory of reasoned action as applied to moral behavior: A confirmatory analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 62 No. 1, pp.98-109.

Verplanken, B. and Holland, R.W. (2002). Motivated decision making: Effects of activation and self-centrality of values on choices and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 82 No. 3, pp.434-447.

Viaene, J. and Gellynck, X. (1996). Consumer behavior towards light products in Belgium. paper presented at the 47th EAAE Seminar, Wageningen, March.

Wandel, M. and Bugge, A. (1997). Environmental concern in consumer evaluation of food quality. Food Quality and Preference, Vol. 8 No. 1, pp.19-26.

Williams, P.R.D. and Hammit, J.K. (2001). Perceived risks of conventional and organic produce: Pesticides, pathogens, and natural toxins. Risk Analysis, Vol. 21 No. 2, pp.319-330.

Xie, B., Wang, L., Yang, H., Wang, Y., and Zhang, M. (2015). Consumer perceptions and attitudes of organic food products in Eastern China. British Food Journal, Vol. 117 Issue: 3, pp.1105-1121.