Critical Discourse Analysis of English News Headlines on Thai Transgender Individuals from Thai and International Websites
Keywords:Thai transgender individuals, Online news headlines, Critical discourse analysis, Representational strategies, Transitivity analysis
AbstractThis study explores the dialectical relationship between language use in English online news headlines and their possible effects to news readers in society. By deploying Critical Discourse Analysis, known as CDA (Fairclough, 1989), representational strategies (van Leeuwen, 1996), and transitivity analysis (Halliday & Matthiessen, 2004), the study aims at examining the representations of Thai transgender individuals. Twenty four online news headlines, half of which from Thai websites and the others from international websites, were randomly selected by using Google and analyzed. The findings indicate that, according to the representational strategies, Thai transgender individuals are collectivized rather than being individualized. Moreover, through the transitivity analysis, they are usually depicted as doers of violence and done-tos of being victimized in the Thai websites. Rather, they are portrayed more positively in the international counterparts. Finally, it can be argued that Thai transgender people’s representations are also disproportionately affected by the newsworthiness issue.
Aitchison, J. (2006). Headlines and deadlines: Changing newspaper language. Retrieved January 5, 2018 from http://www.euralex.org/elx_%20proceedings/Euralex2006/002_2006_V1_Jean%20AITCHINSON_Headlines%20and%20Deadlines_Changing%20%20Newspaper%20Language.pdf
Barea, M. E. (2012). From the iron to the lady: The kathoey phenomenon in Thai cinema. Sesión no numerada: Revista de letras y ficción audiovisual, (2), 190-202.
Bloor, M., & Bloor, T. (2007). The practice of critical discourse analysis: An introduction. London: Hodder Arnold.
Brummelhuis, H. T. (1999). Transformations of transgender: The case of the Thai kathoey. In P. A. Jackson & G. Sullivan (Eds.), Lady boys, tom boys, rent boys: Male and female homosexualities in contemporary Thailand. (pp. 117-136). Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books.
Duanprakhon, P. (2012). Critical discourse analysis of news headlines: A case of youth crime in Thailand. (Unpublished master’s thesis). School of Language and Communication National Institute of Development Administration, Thailand.
Fairclough, N. (1989). Language and power. London: Longman.
Fogarty, M. (2011, August 18). Grammar Girl: Single quotation marks versus double quotation marks. Retrieved January 2, 2018 from https://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/single-quotation-marksversus-double-quotation-marks
Fowler, R. (1991). Language in the news: Discourse and ideology in the press. London: Routledge.
Grossman, A. H., & D'Augell, A. R. (2007). Transgender youth and life-threatening behaviors. Suicide and life-threatening behavior, 37(5), 527-537.
Halliday, M. A., & Matthiessen, C. M. (2004). An introduction to functional grammar (3rd ed.). London: Arnold.
Head, J. (2008, July 29). Thai school offers transsexual toilet. Retrieved January 5, 2018 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7529227.stm
Hill, B. (2011, May 7). Single quotation marks and their uses. Retrieved January 2, 2018 from http://theeditorsblog.net/2011/05/07/single-quotation-marks-a-readers-question/
Javed, S., Mahmood, R., & Mahmood, M. A. (2011). A critical discourse analysis of the news headlines of budget of Pakistan FY 2011-2012. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3(5), 120-129.
Juan, L. (2010). Transitivity and lexical cohesion: Press representations of a political disaster and its actors. Journal of Pragmatics, 42(12), 3444–3458.
Kaiman, J. (2015, January 16). Transgender sex workers among China’s most marginalised people. Retrieved January 2, 2018 from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jan/16/transgender-sex-workers-china-most-marginalised
Kasemcharoenwong, P. (2014). We live in the same world: A corpus-based study investigated through "transgender". Proceedings of the International Conference: DRAL 2 / ILA, 24-26.
Klaisingto, P., & Aroonmanakun, W. (2010). Thai gender ideology: A view from representations of social actors in crime news headlines. Manusya, 13(2), 37-49.
Lemmouh, Z. (2008). A critical linguistic analysis of the representation of Muslims in the New York Times. Journal of Language and Communication Studies, 40, 217-240.
Machin, D., & Mayr, A. (2012). How to do critical discourse analysis: A multimodal approach. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.
Maneenetr, T., & Tran, T. H. (2014). SWOT analysis of a ladyboy cabaret show market in Phuket province, Thailand. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(23), 653-656. Retrieved July 24, 2018 from doi:10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n23p653.
Matila, R. (2013). A discourse analysis of news headlines: Diverse framings for a hostage-taking event. Asian Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 2(2), 71-78.
Ocha, W., & Earth, B. (2012). Identity diversification among transgender sex workers in Thailand's sex tourism industry. Sexualities, 16, 195-216.
Paltridge, B. (2006). Discourse analysis: An introduction. London: Continuum.
Reah, D. (2002). The language of newspapers (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.
Renström, C. (2012). Discourses in the news the case of occupy Wall Street in the New York Times and the New York Post. Retrieved January 2, 2018 from http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:610102/FULLTEXT01.pdf
Richardson, J.E. (2007). Analysing newspaper. London: Macmillan.
Saisuwan, P. (2011). Kathoeys’ and women’s use of first-person personal reference terms in Thai. Master's thesis, The University of Edinburgh, Scotland. Retrieved January 2, 2018 from https://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/1842/6041/Saisuwan%202011%20%20MSc.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Saisuwan, P. (2016). Male femininity in Thai among men who identify with non-normative male roles (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Queen Mary University of London.
Simpson, P. (1993). Language, ideology, and point of view. London: Routledge.
Singhakowinta, J. (2016). Reinventing sexual identities: Thai gay men’s persuit of sicail acceptance. Journal of Language and Communication, 21, 18-40.
Sinnott, M. (1999). Masculinity and Tom identity in Thailand. In P. A. Jackson & G. Sullivan (Eds.), Lady boys, tom boys, rent boys: Male and female homosexualities in contemporary Thailand. (pp. 117-136). Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books.
Storer, G. (1999). Rehearsing gender and sexuality in modern Thailand: Masculinity and male-male sex behaviors. In P. A. Jackson & G. Sullivan (Eds.), Lady boys, tom boys, rent boys: Male and female homosexualities in contemporary Thailand. (pp. 137-155). Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books.
Surfus, C. R. (2013). Equity issues in LGBT funding: Inequality remains despite national progress. SPNHA Review, 9(1), 65-83. Retrieved July 24, 2018 from http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/spnhareview/vol9/iss1/7.
Tiono, N. (2003). An analysis on syntactic and semantic factors found in newspaper headlines. Jurusan Sastra Inggris, 5(1), 49-61.
van Dijk, T. A. (1988). News as discourse. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.
van Dijk, T. A. (1991). Elite discourse and the reproduction of racism. Pedagogic Text Analysis and Content Analysis. Conference in Härnösand, Sweden Nov. 4-6 1991: Instutitionen för pedagogisk textforskning.
van Dijk, T. A. (1995a). Aims of critical discourse analysis. Japanese Discourse, 1, 17-27.
van Dijk, T. A. (1995b). Political communication and action. In Paletz, D. (Ed). Power and the News Media. (pp. 9-36). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
van Dijk, T. A. (2001). Critical Discourse Analysis. In D. Tannen, D. Schiffrin & H. Hamilton (Eds.), Handbook of discourse analysis. (pp. 352-371). Oxford: Blackwell.
van Leeuwen, T. (1996). The representations of social actors. In C.R. Caldas-Coulthard and M. Coulthard (Eds.), Text and practices: Readings in critical discourse analysis. (pp. 32-70). London: Routledge.
Whittle, S., Turner, L., & Al-Alami, M. (2007). Engendered penalties: Transgender and transsexual people’s experiences of inequality and discrimination. Retrieved July 24, 2018 from http://www.pfc.org.uk/pdf/EngenderedPenalties.pdf.
Winter, S., & Udomsak, N. (2002). Male, female and transgender: Stereotypes and self in Thailand. IJT, 6(1).
Winter, S. (2006). Language and identity in transgender: Gender wars, anatomania, and the Thai kathoey. Retrieved January 2, 2018 from http://www.transgenderasia.org/paper-languageandidentity.pdf
Xtraonline. (2012, March 13). Secretary of state Hillary Clinton's historic LGBT speech - full length - high definition [Video file]. Retrieved January 2, 2018 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WIqynW5EbIQ.
Yao, S. (2015). Malaysian flight MH370 reports: A critical discourse analysis. The New English Teacher, 9(2), 127-150.