A Study of Teachers' Awareness of ELF and an Analysis of ELF Features of Primary School Students' Writings at an International School in Bangkok


  • Yasaman Shetabi Assumption University
  • Ratchaporn Rattanaphumma Graduate School of English Assumption University


World Englishes, ELF Features, Teachers’ Awareness


This study conducted interviews with three English teachers from an international school in Bangkok in order to examine their awareness of English as Lingua Franca (ELF). The writings of 33 primary international students of the same school from grade 2 to grade 6 were also analysed in order to identify the dominant features of spoken English as a Lingua Franca (as demonstrated in the study of Kirkpatrick, 2010) finding its way into written forms.


The results demonstrated that despite the teachers’ awareness of the ELF, the subject teachers evidently expressed confusion over how the written language produced by international students ought to be evaluated. The subject teachers took a traditional approach to English language teaching based on the so-called Standard English, disregarding the existing varieties of English (Singaporean English, Chinese English, etc.).


Additionally, the analysis of the students’ writings indicated three dominant ELF features: redundancy and misplacement of articles, using verbs in different tenses than their contextual requirements, and non-marking of third person singular with –s along with redundancy and the misuse of prepositions. 


Baker, Mark (2012). On the relationship of object agreement and accusative case: Evidence from Amharic. Linguistic Inquiry 43:255-274.

Bautista, Ma. Lourdes (2000). Thegrammatical features of educated Philippine English. In Parangalcang Brother Andrew: A Festschrift for Andrew Gonzalez on His Sixtieth Birthday. Edited by Ma. Lourdes Bautista, Teodoro A. Llamzon, and Bonifacio P. Sibayan. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines, pp.146-160.

Bybee, Joan. (2008). Usage-based grammar and second language acquisition. In P. Robinson and N. Ellis (eds.), Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition. New York: Routledge. 216-236.

Cogo, A. (2012). English as a Lingua Franca: Concepts, use and implications. English Language Teaching Journal 66(1):97–105.

Firth, A. (1996). The discursive accomplishment of normality: On ‘Lingua Franca’ English and conversation analysis. Journal of Pragmatics 26,2: 237-59.

Foley, J.A. (2013). Sociology of Language. Bangkok: Assumption University Press.

Graddol, D. (1997). The Future of English? A Guide to Forecasting the Popularity of the English Language in the 21st Century. London: British Council.

Gupta, Anthea Fraser. (1988). A standard for written Singapore English. In J.A. Foley (ed), New Englishes: The Case of Singapore. Singapore: National University of Singapore Press.

Jenkins, Jennifer. (2000). The Phonology of English as an International Language. Oxford:Oxford University Press.

Jenkins, J. (2004). ELF at the Gate. The Position of English as a Lingua Franca. The European English Messenger 13: 63-69.

Jenkins, J. (2007). English as a Lingua Franca: Attitude and Identity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jenkins, J., Cogo, A.,& Dewey, M. (2011). Review of developments in research into English as a lingua franca. Language Teaching, 44, 281-315.

Kirkpatrick, A. (2010). English as a Lingua Franca in ASEAN: The Multilingual Model. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press

Matsuda, A. (2002). Representation of users and uses of English in beginning Japanese EFL textbooks. JALT Journal 24(2), 80–98.

Matsuda, A. (2003). Incorporating world Englishes in teaching English as an international language. TESOL Quarterly 37(4), 719-729.

Mauranen, Anna. (2003). The Corpus of English as Lingua Franca in Academic Settings. TESOL Quarterly 37 (3): 513-527.

Mauranen, A. (2006). A Rich Domain of ELF – The ELFA Corpus of Academic

Discourse. Nordic Journal of English Studies 5, 2: 145-159.

Melchers, G. & Shaw, P. (2003). World Englishes. An Introduction. London: Arnold.

Mesthrie, R. & R. Bhatt. (2008). World Englishes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Rajagopalan, K. (2004). The concept of ‘World English’ and its implication for ELT. ELT Journal, 58(2) pp. 111- 117.

Seidlhofer, B. (2001). Closing a Conceptual Gap: The case for a description of English as a lingua franca. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 11(2): 133-158.

Seidlhofer, Barbara. (2003). "A concept of International English and related issues: from 'real English' to 'realistic English'?". Council of Europe. http://www.coe.int/T/DG4/Linguistic/Source/SeidlhoferEN.pdf

Seidlhofer, Barbara. (2004). Research perspectives on teaching English as a lingua franca. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24, 209-239.

Takahashi, H. (2014). A usage-based analysis of indirect directives in English: A preliminary quantitative survey. The Annual Report on Cultural Science. Hokkaido University. 99-135






Research articles