• Peerakorn Singchai King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi
  • Natjiree Jaturapitakkul King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi


cohesion, narrative essay, reference, substitution, conjunction, lexical cohesion


Cohesion has been in the limelight of many linguists in terms of investigating how texts are related to each other. This study examines what cohesive devices are used in students’ narrative essays and which cohesive device is most frequently used in each type among three groups of students. Thirty participants, all of whom were grade 11 students at a public school in Bangkok, were divided into three groups: advanced, intermediate and beginner. The main instrument for data analysis was a sample of 30 finished student’s narrative essays in which cohesion was extracted. The findings revealed that four types of cohesion: reference, substitution, conjunction and lexical cohesion were found in students’ narrative essays, while elliptical cohesion was noticeably absent. The comparison of each sub-category among three target groups showed that 141 personal references ‘I’ was the most frequently used in the advanced group, followed by 113 additive conjunctions ‘and’ in the advanced group, 95 collocations in the advanced group and 18 nominal substitutions ‘one’ in the beginner group respectively. This study could provide useful suggestions for the EFL writing classroom for not only students to improve the use of cohesion in their writings but also for teachers to prepare a practical writing pedagogy for the EFL students.

Author Biography

Natjiree Jaturapitakkul, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi

Natjiree Jaturapitakkul, Ph.D. is an assistant professor in the Department of Language Studies, School of Liberal Arts (SoLA), King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Thailand. She is currently the head of Testing Unit of the SoLA. Her research interests include English language teaching, language assessment and evaluation, test development, and ESP testing.


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Research articles