Exploring the Significant Drivers of Chinese Art Students’ Satisfaction, Loyalty and Learning Performance in Chongqing, China


  • Lusha Li


DOI: 10.14456/shserj.2024.3
Published: 2024-03-01


Online Learning, Image, Satisfaction, Loyalty, Learning Performance


Purpose: This study investigates the influence of students’ satisfaction, loyalty and learning performance using Tencent Conferences online learning in Chongqing, China. The key variables are developed to construct a conceptual framework, including service quality, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, image, satisfaction, loyalty, and learning performance. Research design, data, and methodology: This study applied a quantitative method to distribute online questionnaires to 500 students at a university in Chongqing. The Item-Objective Congruence (IOC) and pilot test (n=30) of Cronbach’s Alpha confirmed the validity and reliability. The researcher employs judgmental, stratified random, and convenience sampling techniques to collect the data. The data were analyzed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to apply the model’s goodness of fit and test the hypotheses. Results: All hypotheses were proven to be supported in this study. Service quality, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and image can determine student satisfaction. Student satisfaction and image significantly influence student loyalty. Furthermore, student satisfaction has the strongest influence on student loyalty. Conclusions: This study contributes to educators and academic institutions in order to initiate effective online learning and promote the significant elements that can enhance student’s learning performance.

Author Biography

Lusha Li

Teacher of Sichuan University of Media and Communications, China.


Ali, F., Zhou, Y., Hussain, K., Nair, P., & Ari Ragavan, N. (2016). Does higher education service quality effect student satisfaction, image and loyalty?. Quality Assurance in Education, 24(1), 70-94. https://doi.org/10.1108/QAE-02-2014-0008

Ali, N. U. (2020, April 2). Students disappointed with online teaching system amid COVID-19. Daily Times. https://dailytimes.com.pk/587446/students-disappointed-with-online-teaching-system-amid-covid-19/

Alves, H., & Raposo, M. (2010). The influence of university image on students’ behavior. International Journal of Educational Management, 24(1), 73-85.

Andreassen, T. W., & Lindestad, B. (1998). Customer Loyalty and Complex Services. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 9(1), 7-23.

Andreassi, J. K., Lawter, L., Brockerhoff, M., & Rutigliano, P. J. (2014). Cultural impact of human resource practices on job satisfaction: a global study across 48 countries. Cross Cultural Management, 21(1), 55-77.

Arbuckle, J. L. (1995). AMOS for Windows Analysis of Moment Structures. Version 3.5 (1st ed.). Small Waters Corp.

Arpan, L., Raney, A., & Zivnuska, S. (2003). A cognitive approach to understanding university image. Corporate Communications, 8(2), 97-113.

Athiyaman, A. (1997). Linking student satisfaction and service quality perceptions: the case of university education. European Journal of Marketing, 31(7), 528-540.

Awang, Z. (2012). A Handbook on SEM Structural Equation Modelling: SEM Using AMOS Graphic (5th ed.). Universiti Teknologi Mara Kelantan.

Barnett, R. (2010). The marketised university: defending the indefensible. In M. Molesworth, E. Nixon & R. Scullion (Eds.), The Marketisation of Higher Education and the Student as Consumer (pp.39-51). Routledge.

Bhattacherjee, A. (2001). Understanding Information Systems Continuance: An Expectation-Confirmation Model. MIS Quarterly, 25(3), 351-370.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3250921

Bolton, R. N., & Drew, J. H. (1991). A multistage model of customers= assessment of service quality and value. Journal of Consumer Research, 54(1), 69-82.

Boomsma, A. (1985). Nonconvergence, improper solutions, and starting values in LISREL maximum likelihood estimation. Psychometrika, 50(2), 229-242.

Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen and J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136-162). Sage.

Cenfetelli, R. T., Benbasat, I., & Al-Natour, S. (2005). Information technology mediated customer service: a functional perspective [Paper Presentation]. 26th International Conference on Information and Software Technologies (ICIST 2020), Lithuania.

Chandra, Y. (2020). Online education during COVID-19: perception of academic stress and emotional intelligence coping strategies among college students. Asian Education and Development Studies, 10(2), 229-238.

Chen, S.-C., Chen, H.-H., & Chen, M.-F. (2009). Determinants of satisfaction and continuance intention towards self-service technologies. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 109(9), 1248-1263.

Clemes, M. D., Gan, C. E. C., & Kao, T. H. (2007). University student satisfaction: an empirical analysis. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 17(2), 292-325.

Cronin, J. J., & Taylor, S. A. (1992). Measuring service quality: re-examination and extension. Journal of Marketing, 56(3), 55-68.

Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly, 13(3), 319-340.

Davis, F. D., Bagozzi, R. P., & Warshaw, P. R. (1989). User acceptance of computer technology: a comparison of two theoretical models. Management Science, 35(8), 982-1003.

DeLone, W. H., & McLean, E. R. (2003). The DeLone and McLean model of information systems success: a ten-year update. Journal of Management Information Systems, 19(1), 9-30.

Duff, A., Boyle, E., Dunleavy, K., & Ferguson, J. (2004). The relationship between personality, approach to learning and academic performance. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(8), 1907-1920.

Dunn, R., Giannitti, M. C., Murray, J. B., & Rossi, I. (1990). Grouping students for instruction: Effects of learning style on achievements and attitudes. Journal of Social Psychology, 130(5), 485-494.

Elliott, K. M., & Healy, M. A. (2001). Key factors influencing student satisfaction related to recruitment retention. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 10(4), 1-11.

Etemad-Sajadi, R., & Rizzuto, D. (2013). The antecedents of consumer satisfaction and loyalty in fast food industry: A cross-national comparison between Chinese and Swiss consumers. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 30(7), 780-798. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJQRM-May-2012-0069

Fornell, C. (1992). A national customer satisfaction barometer, the Swedish experience. Journal of Marketing, 5(1), 6-21.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error: Algebra and Statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 382-388. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3150980

Freeze, R. D., Alshare, K. A., Lane, P. L., & Wen, H. J. (2010). IS success model in e-learning context based on students’ perceptions. Journal of Information Systems Education, 21(2), 173-184.

Gamal Aboelmaged, M. (2010). Predicting e‐procurement adoption in a developing country: An empirical integration of technology acceptance model and theory of planned behaviour. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 110(3), 392-414. https://doi.org/10.1108/02635571011030042

Gao, L., & Zhang, L. J. (2020). Teacher learning in difficult times: Examining foreign language teachers’ cognitions about online teaching to tide over COVID-19. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.549653

George, D., & Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference 11.0 update (4th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.

Gorla, N., Somers, T. M., & Wong, B. (2010). Organizational impact of system quality, information quality, and service quality. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 19(3), 207-228.

Gottfried, M. A. (2010). Evaluating the relationship between student attendance and achievement in urban elementary and middle schools an instrumental variables approach. American Educational Research Journal, 47(2), 434-465.

Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., Anderson, R., & Tatham, R. (2006). Multivariate Data Analysis (6th ed.). Pearson Prentice Hall.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis (7th ed.). Pearson.

Helgesen, O., & Nesset, E. (2011). Does LibQUAL- account for student loyalty to a university college library?. Quality Assurance in Education, 19(4), 413-440.

Hong, S.-J., Thong, J. Y. L., & Tam, K. Y. (2006). Understanding continued information technology usage behavior: a comparison of three models in the context of mobile internet. Decision Support Systems, 42(3), 1819-1834.

Iaffaldano, M. T., & Muchinsky, P. M. (1985). Job satisfaction and job performance: a meta- analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 97(2), 251-273.

Joo, S. (2010). How are usability elements – efficiency, effectiveness, and satisfaction – correlated with each other in the context of digital libraries?. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 47(1), 1-2.

Joreskog, K. G., & Sorbom, D. (1984). Advances in factor analysis and structural equation models (1st ed.). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Judge, T. A., Thoresen, C. J., Bono, J. E., & Patton, G. K. (2001). The job satisfaction-job performance relationship: a qualitative and quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 127(3), 376-407.

Kandampully, J., & Suhartanto, D. (2000). Customer loyalty in the hotel industry: the role of customer satisfaction and image. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 12(6), 346-351.

Kim, M. K., Park, M. C., & Jeong, D. H. (2004). The effects of customer satisfaction and switching barrier on customer loyalty in Korean mobile telecommunication services. Telecommunication Policy, 28(2), 145-159.

Kirschner, P. A., & Karpinski, A. C. (2010). Facebooks and academic performance. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(6), 1237-1245.

Kline, R. B. (2010). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). Guilford Press.

Lazim, C. S. L. M., Ismail, N. D. B., & Tazilah, M. D. A. K. (2021). Application of technology acceptance model (tam) towards online learning during covid-19 pandemic: accounting students perspective. International Journal of Business, Economics and Law, 24(1), 13-20.

Lee, M. C. (2010). Explaining and predicting users’ continuance intention toward e-learning: An extension of the expectation–confirmation model. Computers & Education, 54(2), 506-516.

Lin, C., Morais, D. B., & Kerstetter, D. L. (2007). Examining the role of cognitive and affective image in predicting choice across natural, developed and thematic park destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 46(2), 183-194.

Lovelock, C., & Wirtz, J. (2007). Service Marketing- People. Technology, Strategy (7th ed.). Pearson Prentice Hall.

Lwoga, E. (2013). Measuring the success of library 2.0 technologies in the African context: The suitability of the DeLone and McLean's model. Campus-Wide Information Systems, 30(4), 288 - 307. https://doi.org/10.1108/CWIS-02-2013-0011

Martineau, P. (1958). The personality of the retail store. Harvard Business Review, 36(1), 47-55.

Mathwick, C., Malhotra, N., & Rigdon, E. (2002). The effect of dynamic retail experiences on experiential perceptions of value: An Internet and catalog comparison. Journal of Retailing, 78(1), 51-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4359(01)00066-5

Ojong, I., Akpan, M., Alasia, M. O., & Nlumanze, F. (2014). A comparative study on reproductive health awareness among urban and rural secondary school students in cross river state, Nigeria. Journal of Research in Nursing and Midwifery, 3(1), 21-25.

Oliver, R. L. (1997). Satisfaction: A Behavioural Perspective on the Consumer (1st ed.). McGraw-Hill.

Palacio, A. B., Meneses, G. D., & Perez, P. J. (2002). The configuration of the university image and its relationship with the satisfaction of students. Journal of Educational Administration, 40(5), 486-505.

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. (1985). A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research. Journal of Marketing, 49(4), 41-50.

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1988). SERVQUAL: a multiple-item scale for measuring customer perceptions of service quality. Journal of Retailing, 64(1), 12-40.

Riketta, M. (2008). The causal relation between job attitudes and performance: a meta-analysis of panel studies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(2), 472-481.

Saglik, E., Gulluce, A., Kaya, U., & Ozhan, C. (2014). Service quality and customer satisfaction relationship: a research in Erzurum Ataturk university refectory. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 4(1), 100-117.

Salimon, M. G., Sanuri, S. M. M., Aliyu, O. A., Perumal, S., & Yusr, M. M. (2021). E-learning satisfaction and retention: a concurrent perspective of cognitive absorption, perceived social presence and technology acceptance model. Journal of Systems and Information Technology, 23(1), 109-129. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSIT-02-2020-0029

Stevens, J. P. (2009). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences (5th ed.). Taylor & Francis Group.

Swanson, R. A., & Holton, E. F. (2001). Foundations of Human Resource Development (1st ed.). Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using Multivariate Statistics (5th ed.). Allyn and Bacon.

Teeroovengadum, V., Kamalanabhan, T. J., & Seebaluck, A. K. (2016). Measuring service quality in higher education: development of a hierarchical model (HESQUAL). Quality Assurance in Education, 24(2), 244-258.

Teo, T. (2009). Modelling technology acceptance in education: A study of pre-service teachers. Computers & Education, 52(1), 302-312.

Thong, J. Y. L., Hong, S.-J., & Tam, K. Y. (2006). The effects of post-adoption beliefs on the expectation- confirmation model for information technology continuance. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 64(9), 799-810.

Venkatesh, V., & Davis, F. D. (1996). A model of the antecedents of perceived ease of use: development and test. Decision Sciences, 27(3), 451-481.

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., & Davis, F. D. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly, 27(3), 425–478.

Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and Motivation (1st ed.). John Wiley & Sons.

Wang, K., & Lin, C.-L. (2012). The adoption of mobile value-added services. Managing Service Quality, 22(2), 184-208.

Wen, C., Prybutok, V. R., & Xu, C. (2011). An integrated model for customer online repurchases intention. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 52(1), 14-23.

Young, M. R., Klemz, B. R., & Murphy, J. W. (2003). Enhancing learning outcomes: The effects of instructional technology, learning styles, instructional methods, and student behavior. Journal of Marketing Education, 25(2), 130-142.

Yuce, A., Abubakar, A., & Ilkan, M. (2019). Intelligent tutoring systems and learning performance. Online Information Review, 43(4), 600-616. https://doi.org/10.1108/oir-11-2017-0340

Zeithaml, V. A. (1988). Consumer perceptions of price, quality and value: a means-end model and synthesis of evidence. Journal of Marketing, 52(3), 2-22.

Zhai, W. (2022). The Antecedents of Student Satisfaction and Loyalty in Public Universities in Zhejiang, China. AU-GSB E-JORNAL, 15(2), 196-205. https://doi.org/10.14456/augsbejr.2022.85




How to Cite

Li, L. (2024). Exploring the Significant Drivers of Chinese Art Students’ Satisfaction, Loyalty and Learning Performance in Chongqing, China. Scholar: Human Sciences, 16(1), 22-31. https://doi.org/10.14456/shserj.2024.3