The Examination of Local And Foreign Customer’s Brand Loyalty Toward Five-Star Hotels in Bangkok


  • Varadis Diskul

DOI: 10.14456/shserj.2023.25
Published: 2023-06-09


Hotel Industry, Brand Loyalty, Brand awareness, Brand Image, Advanced Information And Communication Technology


Purpose: In Bangkok’s highly competitive hotel industry, hotel operators seek to retain a good relationship with customers by understanding the factors influencing their brand loyalty. This study examines the causal relationship between advanced information and communication technology (ICT), perceived quality (tangibility, responsiveness, reliability, assurance, and empathy), brand awareness, brand image, and brand loyalty. Research design, data, and methodology: The questionnaire was used as a tool to collect the data from 500 respondents who are local and foreign guests of the top 5 five-star hotel brands located in Bangkok, Thailand. Content validity was applied using the Index of Item-Objective Congruence (IOC). Then, the pilot test was assessed by Cronbach’s Alpha reliability test. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) were used to analyze the data. Results: The results show that ICT significantly influences perceived quality, brand image, and brand loyalty. Perceived quality significantly influences brand image but not brand awareness and brand loyalty. Furthermore, there is a causal relationship between brand image, brand awareness, and brand loyalty. Conclusions: This paper incorporates the factors that regulate brand loyalty in marketing literature and provides competitive strategies for hotel managers to increase brand loyal customers. 

Author Biography

Varadis Diskul

Ph.D. Candidate in Innovative Technology Management, Graduate School of Business and Advanced Technology Management, Assumption University of Thailand.


Aaker, D. A. (1991). Managing Brand Equity (1st ed.). Free Press.

Ahmed, Z. (2014). Effect of brand trust and customer satisfaction on brand loyalty in Bahawalpur. Journal of Sociological Research, 5(1), 306-326.

Alhaddad, A. (2015). A structural model of the relationships between brand image, brand trust and brand loyalty. International Journal of Management Research, 5(3), 137-144.

Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1984). The effect of sampling error on convergence, improper solutions, and goodness-of-fit indices for maximum likelihood confirmatory factor analysis. Psychometrika, 49(2), 155-173.

Arbuckle, J. (1995). AMOS: Analysis of moment structures user’s guide (1st ed.). Small Waters.

Aydin, S., & Özer, G. (2005). The analysis of antecedents of customer loyalty in the Turkish mobile telecommunication market. European Journal of Marketing, 39(7/8), 910-925.

Bowen, J., & Shoemaker, S. (1998). Loyalty: a strategic commitment. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 2(2), 12-25.

Choi, T. Y., & Chu, R. (2001). Determinants of Hotel Guests’ Satisfaction and Repeat Patronage in the Hong Kong Hotel Industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 20(3), 277-297.

Dewhirst, T., & Davis, B. (2005). Brand strategy and integrated marketing communication. Journal of Advertising, 34(4), 81-92.

Esch, F. R., Langner, T., Schmitt, B. H., & Geus, P. (2006). Are brands forever? How knowledge and relationships affect current and future purchases. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 15(2), 98-105.

Forgács, G. (2003). Brand asset equilibrium in hotel management. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 15(6), 340-342.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.

Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (5th ed.). Prentice Hall.

Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., Anderson, R., & Tatham, R. (2006). Multivariate Data Analysis (6th ed.). Pearson Education.

Ham, S., Kim, W. G., & Jeong, S. (2005). Effect of information technology on performance in upscale hotels. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 24(2), 281-294.

Hashim, A., Elumalai, G., & Ab Rahman, Z. (2018). Reliability and validity for measurement of body composition: A field method. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 9(6), 1187-1206.

Hsu, C. H. C., Oh, H., & Assaf, A. G. (2011). A Customer-Based Brand Equity Model for Upscale Hotels. Journal of Travel Research, 51(1), 81-93.

Johnston, R. (1995). The determinants of service quality: satisfiers and dissatisfiers. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 6(5), 53-71.

Jones, M. A., Mothersbaugh, D. L., & Beatty, S. E. (2002). Why Customers Stay: Measuring the Underlying Dimensions of Services Switching Costs and Managing Their Differential Strategic Outcomes. Journal of Business Research, 55(6), 441-450.

Kandampully, J., & Suhartanto, D. (2000). Customer loyalty in the hotel industry: the role of customer satisfaction and image. International journal of contemporary hospitality management, 12(6), 346-351.

Kayaman, R., & Arasli, H. (2007). Customer based brand equity: Evidence from the hotel industry. Managing Service Quality, 17(1), 92-109.

Keller, K. L. (2003). Strategic brand management: Building, measuring, and managing brand equity (4th ed.). Prentice Hall.

Kim, H.-B., & Kim, W. G. (2005). The Relationship between Brand Equity and Firms’ Performance in Luxury Hotels and Chain Restaurants. Tourism Management, 26(4), 549-560.

Krungsri Research Center. (2021, January 21). Industry Horizon.

Lee, H. M., Lee, C. C., & Wu, C. C. (2009). Brand image strategy affects brand equity after M & A. European Journal of Marketing, 45(7/8), 1091 - 1111.

Madhavaram, S., Badrinarayanan, V., & Mcdonald, R. (2013). Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) and Brand Identity as Critical Components of Brand Equity Strategy. Journal of Advertising, 34(4), 69-80.

Manakitsomboon, H. (2022, August 3). Hotel industry in Thailand - statistics & facts. Statista.

Mishra, A. A., & Mishra, A. (2014). National vs. Local Celebrity Endorsement and Politics. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, 27(4), 409-425.

Mourad, M., Ennew, C., & Kortam, W. (2011). Brand equity in higher education. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 29(4), 403-420.

O’Neill, J., & Xiao, Q. (2006). The Role of Brand Affiliation in Hotel Market Value. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 47(3), 210-223.

Odin, Y., Odin, N., & Florence, P. V. (2001). Conceptual and operational aspects of brand loyalty: An empirical investigation. Journal of Business Research, 53(2), 75-84.

Oliver, R. L. (1999). Whence Consumer Loyalty. Journal of Marketing, 63, 33-34.

Pappu, R., Quester, P. G., & Cooksey, R. W. (2005). Consumer‐based brand equity: improving the measurement - empirical evidence. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 14(3), 143-154.

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V., & Berry, L. (1985). A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and Its Implications for Future Research. Journal of Marketing, 49(4), 41-50.

Pasunon, P. (2015). Evaluation of Inter-Rater Reliability Using Kappa Statistics. The Journal of Faculty of Applied Arts, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, 8(1), 2-20.

Richard, J., & Zhang, A. (2012). Corporate image, loyalty, and commitment in the consumer travel industry. Journal of Marketing Management, 28(3-2), 568-593.

Rowley, J. (1998). Quality measurement in the public sector: some perspectives from the service quality literature. Total Quality Management, 19(2/3), 321-335.

Ruiz-Molina, M. E., Gil-Saura, I., & Moliner-Velázquez, B. (2011). Does technology make a difference? Evidence from Spanish hotels. Service Business, 5(1), 1-12.

Ryssel, R., Ritter, T., & Gemunden, H. G. (2004). The impact of information technology deployment on trust, commitment and value creation in business relationships. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 19(3), 197-207.

Sadat, H. R., & Zainal, A. (2014). Hotel customer-based experience, brand image and loyalty in Iran. In N. Sumarjan, M. S. M. Zahari, S. M. Radzi, Z. Mohi, M. H. M. Hanafiah, M. F. H. Bakhtiar, Z. Artinah, S. Bakhtiar, M. Hafiz & M. Hanafiah (Eds.), Hospitality and Tourism: Synergizing Creativity and Innovation in Research (pp. 239–241). Taylor & Francis Group.

Sekaran, U. (1992). Research Methods for Business: A Skill-Building Approach (1st ed.). John Wiley & Sons.

Šeric, M., Gil-Saura, I., & Mollá-Descals, A. (2016). Can advanced technology affect customer-based brand equity in service firms? an empirical study in upscale hotels. Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 26(1), 2-27.

Shoemaker, S., & Lewis, R. C. (1999). Customer Loyalty: The Future of Hospitality Marketing. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 18(4), 345-370.

Studenmund, A. H. (1992). Using Econometrics: A Practical Guide (1st ed.). Harper Collins.

Tweephoncharoen, J., & Vongurai, R. (2020). The Factors Influencing on Purchase Intention of Thai and Chinese Customers Towards the Hotel Industry in Bangkok, Thailand. AU-GSB E-JOURNAL, 12(2), 35-39.

Wonggotwarin, T., & Kim, S. (2017). The Products’ Factors Affecting Purchase Intention: A Case Study of Condominium in Bangkok, Thailand. AU-GSB E-JOURNAL, 10(1), 214-231.

Zeithaml, V. A. (1988). Consumer perceptions of price. Quality and value: A means-end model and synthesis of evidence. Journal of Marketing, 52(3), 2-22.

Zhang, H., Qi, P., & Pine, R. (2000). The Challenges and Opportunities of Franchising in China’s Hotel Industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 12(5), 300-307.




How to Cite

Diskul, V. (2023). The Examination of Local And Foreign Customer’s Brand Loyalty Toward Five-Star Hotels in Bangkok. Scholar: Human Sciences, 15(1), 242-251.