The Development of an Instructional Leadership Model for Outcome-Based Education at Private Higher Education Institutions in Cambodia


  • Chhourn Bun Hoeun
  • Poonpilas Asavisanu
  • Matthew Merritt


Instructional Leadership, Outcome-based Education, Factors Affecting Instructional Leadership, Private Higher Education Institutions


: The main purpose of this study is to develop an instructional leadership model for outcome-based education which has to be implemented in private higher education institutions in Cambodia. An exploratory sequential mixed-method (quantitative and qualitative) was employed for the study. Five private universities in Cambodia with 211 lecturers and 10 academic administrators participated in the study. Survey was used to collect the quantitative data with lecturers and interview was held to collect qualitative data with the academic administrators. For quantitative data, means, standard deviation and multiple regression were used to analyze the data and for qualitative data, content analysis was employed to analyze the data. The findings of instructional leadership and outcome-based education were consistent to the overall framework of the theories. Instructional leadership was found moderately practiced by the academic administrators of the five Cambodian private universities. The current practices of instructional leadership significantly correlated with the current outcome-based education practices. Four dimensions include Professional Development, Supervision of Curriculum Development and Instruction, and A Supportive and Collaborative Environment strongly and significantly correlated with all stages of outcome-based education. Three factors including Funding and Facilities, Cooperation, Culture, and Values, and Qualification, Skills, and Experience were found significantly affected instructional leadership practices. Outcome-based education was not found typically practiced by the selected universities though the quantitative data from survey gave greater mean score while the interviews offered in depth of the current practices. A model of instructional leadership for outcome-based education was developed with two parts: instructional leadership and outcome-based education. The new instructional leadership model is to be implemented by the students, lecturers, academic administrators, and higher education institutions in Cambodia.

Author Biographies

Chhourn Bun Hoeun

Ph.D., Director, Asia Human Resource Development Institute, Cambodia,

Poonpilas Asavisanu

Ph.D., Asst. Professor, Ph.D. Program in Educational Administration & Leadership, Graduate School of Human Sciences, Assumption University, Thailand, 

Matthew Merritt

Ph.D., Principal, KPIS International School, 


Akir, O., Eng, H. T., & Malie, S. (2012). Teaching and learning enhancement through outcome-based education structure and technology e-learning support. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 62, pp. 87-92.

Alam, A. & Ahmad, M. (2017). The impact of instructional leadership, professional communities and extra responsibilities for teachers on student achievement. International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 31, Issue: 3, pp.383-395.

An, I. L. (2014). Impact of Outcome-Based Education Instruction to Accountancy Students in an Asian University. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, Arts and Sciences, Vol. 1, No.5.

Ashworth, F., Brennan, G., Egan, K. Hamilton, R. & Saenz, O. (2004). Learning Theories and Higher Education. School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. ARROW@DIT.

Backor, T. K. & Gordon, P. S. (2015). Preparing Principals as Instructional Leaders: Perceptions of University Faculty, Expert Principals, and Expert Teacher Leaders. NASSP Bulletin, Vol. 99(2) 105–126, SAGE.

Blase, J. and Blase, J. (2000). Effective instructional leadership. Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 38, Iss 2, pp. 130 – 141

Brazer, S. D., & Bauer, S. C. (2013). Preparing instructional leaders: A model. Educational Administration Quarterly, 49(4), 645-684.

Brown, L. T & Chai, C. (2012). Assessing instructional leadership: a longitudinal study of new principals. Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 50, Iss. 6.

Bulgren, J., Deshler, D. D., & Lenz, K. (2007). Engaging adolescents with LD in higher order thinking about history concepts using integrated content enhancement routines. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40, 121–133.

Caruth, D.G. (2013). Understanding Resistance to Change: A Challenge for Universities. Turkish online Journal of Distance Education, Vol. 14, No.2.

Chan, A. & Chan, C. (2009). A New Outcome-Based Curriculum: Its Impact on Student Core Competence. Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, Vol. 1, Issue 2, pp. 24-32.

Chet, C., Ngin, C., Chhinh, S., Dy, S. S., and David, F. (2014). Reviews of educational contents, pedagogies and connectivity of curriculum and its relevance to economic development in Cambodia: A focus on Khmer, mathematics, and science for grades 9 and 12.

Chow, C. & Wong, K. (2012). Alignment of Program Outcomes with Subject Outcomes: A Case of Personal Development in Higher Education.

Clark, T., & Gottfredson, C. (2008). In search of learning agility. Retrieved from

Clarke, J. S., Ellett, C. D., Bateman, J. M., & Rugutt, J. K. (1996). Faculty

receptivity/resistance to change, personal and organizational efficacy, decision deprivation and effectiveness in research 1 universities. Proceedings of the Association for the Study of Higher Education Meeting, 21.

D’Andrea V. M. (1999). Organizing teaching and learning: outcomes-based planning. In Fry H., Ketteridge, S. & Marshall, S. (eds.)

Davis, M. H. (2003). Outcome-Based Education, Educational Strategies. International Journal of Educational Development, pp.1-6. Retrieved from

DeBevoise, W. (1984). Synthesis of research on the principal as instructional leader. Educational Leadership, 41(5), 14-20.

Eang, M. (2014). Ministry Simplifies Teacher Salary Payments. Retrieved from The Cambodia Daily:

Elbeck, M. and Vander Schee, B.A. (2015). MBA students as customers: The Kano method and collegiate website excitement factors. In Robinson, L. (Ed.), Marketing Dynamism & Sustainability: Things Change, Things Stay the Same…. Springer International Publishing, Houston, TX, pp. 299-299.

Gandhi, M.M. (2015). Total quality management in higher education in INDIA. International Journal of Organizational Behaviour & Management Perspectives, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 1200-1211.

Gurr-Mark, D., George, D. L. & Mulford, B. (2010). Australian Principal Instructional Leadership: Direct and Indirect Influence. magis, Revista Internacional de Investigación en Education, 2 (4), 299-314.

Hallinger, P. (2005). Instructional leadership and the school principal: A passing fancy that refuses to fade away. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 4(3), 221-239.

Hallinger, P. (2011). Leadership for learning: lessons from 40 years of empirical research. Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 49, No. 2.

Hallinger, P. & Walker, A. (2017). Leading learning in Asia- emerging empirical insights from five societies. Journal of Education Administration, Vol. 55, Iss. 2.

Harmon, G. (2015). Australia as a higher education exporter. International Higher Education, Vol. 42, No. 1.

Hughes, J. N. (2011). Longitudinal Effects of Teacher and Student Perceptions of Teacher Student Relationship Qualities on Academic Adjustment. The Elementary School Journal, 112(1), 38-60.

Hoy, A.W. & Hoy, W. K. (2013). Instructional Leadership: A Research Based Guide to Learning in Schools. PEARSON Education, Inc., New Jersey.

Jiang, K. (2015). Undergraduate teaching evaluation in China: progress and debate. International Higher Education, Vol. 58, No. 1.

Killen, R. (2007). Effective Teaching Strategies: Lessons from Research and Practice (4th ed.). Melbourne: Thompson Social Sciences Press.

Koen, M.P. and Bitzer, E.M. (2010). Academic Leadership in Higher Education: A “participative” Perspective from One Institution. Academic Leadership Journal, Vol.8, Iss.1, Article 8.

Lee, M., Walker, A. & Chui, Y. L. (2012). Contrasting effects of instructional leadership practices on student learning in a high accountability context. Journal of Educational Administration, 50(5), 586-611.

Leithwood, K., Louis, K., Anderson, S. and Wahlstrom, K. (2004). How Leadership Influences Student Learning. Wallace Foundation, New York, NY.

Lixun, W. (2011). Designing and Implementing Outcome-Based Learning in a Linguistics Course: A Case Study in Hong Kong. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 12, 9-18.

Mark, E. (2012). Student satisfaction: examining the role of students as customers. Dean’s Graduate Student Research Conference, February.

McBride, K. (2010). Leadership in Higher Education: Handling Faculty Resistance to Technology through Strategic Planning. Academic Leadership Journal, Vol. 8, Iss. 4, Article 41.

Mead, S. (2011). Principals as Crucial Instructional Leaders. Foundation For Child Development, FCD.

Murphy, J., & Hallinger, P. (1985). Effective high schools: What are the common characteristics? NASSP Bulletin, 69(411), 18-22.

Neumerski, C. M. (2012). Rethinking instructional leadership, a review: What do we know about principal, teacher, and coach instructional leadership, and where should we go from here? Educational Administration Quarterly, 49(2), 310-347.

Pan, W. H, Nyeu, F., & Chen, S. J. (2015). Principal instructional leadership in Taiwan: lessons from two decades of research. Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 53, Issue: 4, pp.492-511.

Prosser, M., Rickinson, M., Bence, V., Hanbury, A., & Kulej, M. (2006). Formative evaluation of accredited programs. The Higher Education Academy. Available online at: evaluation of accredited programs.pdf.

Rigby, J. G. (2014). Three logics of instructional leadership. Educational Administration Quarterly, 50(4), 610-644.

Raouf, Y. (2016). Instructional Leadership in Higher Education: Practicing Sound Leadership for Students and Instructors. A Student Development Journal, Vol.10

Schleicher, A. (Ed.). (2012). Preparing teachers and developing school leaders for the 21st century: Lessons from around the World. Paris: OECD Publishing.

Sherry, C., Bhat, R., Beaver, B. and Ling, A. (2004). Students as customers: the expectations and perceptions of local and international students. HERDSA Conference, Auckland, July.

Spady, W.G. (1994). Outcome-based education: critical issues and answers. Arlington, Va, American Association of School Administrators.

Stronge, J. H., Richard, H. B & Catano, N. (2008). Qualities of Effective Principals. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Sunder M.V. (2016). Constructs of quality in higher education services. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, Vol. 65, Issue: 8, pp.1091-1111.

Tileston. (2004). What Every Teacher Should Know About Instructional Planning. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.

UNESCO. (2011). Education and Fragility in Cambodia. International Institute for Educational Planning. Retrieved from 0021/002110/211049e.pdf

Vann, M. (2012). Stakeholders’ perceptions of quality in Cambodian higher education. (Doctoral Dissertation), School of Global Studies, Social Science and Planning, RMIT University

VSO. (2008). Teaching Matters: A Policy Report on the Motivation and Morale of Teachers in Cambodia. VSO. Retrieved from ttp://

Williams, J. H., Kitamura, Y. and Keng, C. S. (2015). Higher Education in Cambodia Expansion and Quality Improvement. PALGRAVE MACMILLAN, New York.




How to Cite

Hoeun, C. B., Asavisanu, P., & Merritt , M. (2021). The Development of an Instructional Leadership Model for Outcome-Based Education at Private Higher Education Institutions in Cambodia. Scholar: Human Sciences, 12(2), 408-427. Retrieved from

Most read articles by the same author(s)